The Trombone History
The trombone in itself has been around for over 600 years. Trombones were Introduced to the orchestra In the 18th century. Trombones were found In churches during this time because they were known for their vocal support. This tradition of using trombones in a church setting continued well into the mid-19th century. Fanny Mendelssohn-Handel’s Oratorio is an example of the trombone use, used In the early years of the trombone. During the mid-19th century, bell-size became wider as a larger, louder sound was introduced for the performance in bands.
This was also used to generate louder volume In the orchestra. By the meld-19th century the role of the trombone in band and classical music was in place. It was not until the end of the 19th century where the trombone found itself in the hands of Jazz musicians in New Orleans. There were multiple types of Jazz such as New Orleans Jazz which was popular during the sass’s until the sass’s, Ragtime (1890-1930), The Jazz Era (1920-Bibb the Big sand/stint Era (sass’s-scars), the Bebop Era (1940’* sass’s), The Avian Guard Era (late sass’s), Free Jazz (late sass’s), and Fusion (sass’s-sass’s).
However, when jazz was in the beginning stages the trombone was more often used as a single instrument. Early jazz bands consisted of a many instruments, but by the sass’s It became standardized, consisting of four trombones, four saxophones. Four trumpets, and the rhythm section which was made up of bass or tuba, drums, piano, guitar and banjo. (“Where Did The Trombone Originate From? ” steamroll. Level]urinal. Com (06/10/2011) http://steamroll. Level]urinal. Com/9214. HTML) Dixieland was the earliest and most recognized form of Jazz and was improvised music.
This style began In New Orleans during the early sass. Dixieland was performed by small jazz bands which used the trumpet or cornet, trombone, clarinet and rhythm section. The trombones role in Dixieland jazz was to play a counter melody which was pretty simple and reinforced the chord progressions. Tailgate was a style period that Jazz musicians loved it used a lot of glissandi and growls. Tailgate was termed by Jazz musicians because they had a need to sit in the back of the wagon in order to have enough space to maneuver the slide. One the most well- known trombone players was Kid ROR.
Kid ROR is well known for his performances tit Louis Armstrong, as well as Dave Peyote, Jelly Roll Morton, and Ma Rained. Another great trombone player from this period is Freddie Issuant of the Dukes of Dixieland, which got their start during the sass Dixieland revival. The sass and sass began a new style of Jazz called the Swing Jazz era. Swing Jazz was different from Dixieland in many ways. Dixieland had small combos where the swing era band had 4 trumpets, 4 trombones, 5 saxophones, piano, bass, drums and every now and then a guitar.
Swing Jazz was pre-composed. Jack Degrade was a well-known trombonist. Jack Degrade got his start performing In Dixieland bands led by Wing Malone, Willard Robinson, Elizabeth Brice, Billy Lusting and Tommy Got. Jack Degrade was a featured trombonist and singer with Paul Whitman Orchestra. Toys have that tailgate approach it was more like playing a trumpet instead. Degrade played with a soft tone. Another notable trombonist from this era is Billy Harris which was known for his technical command of the trombone.
Billy Harris had great endurance and range and was able to handle fast tempos. Harris was known for using the technique called against the grain. Which is when a trombonist changes notes very rapidly by breaking the harmonic partials without the use of tongue notes. Billy Harris and Jack Degrade were not the only memorable and notable trombonists of this era, so was Tommy Dorset who was a trombonist and band leader. Jimmy Harrison, Benny Morton, and Trump Young are highly memorable trombone soloists from this style period.
The next stylistic movement was called Bebop. Bebop had its origins in the sass. This style of Jazz was important because it was unlike any other Jazz, this Jazz was not for dancers, as the others had been, this jazz was for listeners. The typical size of a Jazz group was small which allowed the jazz musicians to improvise more. The first bebop trombonist was Bennie Green. Bennie got his start in the swing era big bands such as the Earl Hines Orchestra. Green’s soloing kept the swing style phrasing, but he added in the bebop harmonic rhythm.
However, the most important figure in modern Jazz trombone was J. J. Johnson. Johnson also got his start by playing in swing band, such as the Count Basis Orchestra. Johnson completely avoided the glissandi and growls which was common for Dixieland and swing styles. Johnson also played with little or no vibrato. He was known for having amazing technical command of his trombone. Frank Resoling was another amazing bebop trombonist. Rosin’s best known Job as a sideman was as the featured trombonist with the Stan Kenton Orchestra.
Other trombonists of this era who made contributions to bebop are Aka Winding, which was very similar to Johnson, so similar that they co-led trombone combos together knows as “Jay and Kate. ” AAA Grey also is a notable trombonist along with Willie Dennis. During the sass many musicians began reacting to bebop and experimenting tit it and trying to put their own twist to it. These Jazz players were taking a cue from 1949 Miles Davis recording “Birth of the Cool,” these Jazz artists began playing with lighter timbres and at more moderate tempos that was common in bebop.
The jazz musicians placed an emphasis on melodic approach to soloing, rather than the harmonic approach of outlining the chord progressions associated with bebop. To name a few notable trombonists of the Cool Jazz era is Carl Fontana which is said to be one of the most important trombonists of cool Jazz. Fontana started with Wood Herman Orchestra and later performed with Stan Kenton and Aka Winding. Fontana was known for playing pretty soft into a microphone, he did this because it gave him the sound of a smooth tone and not a fast speed.
Fontana was also known for double tonguing also knows as doodle tonguing. There are many Jazz musicians who made a mark in the cool Jazz period and they are J. J. Johnson. Aka Winding, Kenny Durham and Miles Davis. During the late sass and sass a number of Jazz artists started to react against some of the stylistic traits of Cool Jazz. These musicians played with darker tones radar driving grooves, rather than broad melodies and harmonies. One of the notable players was Slide Hampton which began his musical career working for Buddy Johnson and then later Lionel Hampton in the middle sass.
Hampton first major recognition was when he was hired by Maynard Ferguson in 1957. Hampton is still an active trombonist, bandleader, and arranger. Hampton likes the larger sounds and plays his trombone with a large bore. Hampton doing this gives him a warm and dark tone. Other trombones who have influenced the hard bop period are J. J. Johnson, Curtis Fuller, Jimmy Innkeeper, Jimmy Cleveland and Frank Rehash. During the sass a movement took place in Jazz which was led by alto saxophonist Ornate Coleman. This style is now knows as Free Jazz.
Free Jazz did not use traditional harmony, melody and rhythm, and instead went back to the use of group improvisation were anything was appropriate. During the Free Jazz period, musicians thought of new ways of producing sounds which resulted in weird effects. Some important free trombonists are Albert Manageresses and Frank UK-Umbra Lacy. Which used a technique called multimillion, which involves playing one pitch and then humming a pitch, usually above note played, which can result in three or more itches sounding. In the sass the Jazz/Rock Fusion happened. This was influenced by rock ‘n’ roll and funk music.
This movement was led by the Miles Davis 1969 recording, “Pitches Brew,” fusion musicians used rock and funk style with electric instruments. The melodies and harmonies seemed to be rather simple. Even this this style was basically for electric instruments, many trombonists have made contributions to the jazz/rock style. Wayne Henderson is noted for the group called “The Crusaders. ” Jimmy Panky is the trombonist with the Jazz/rock group “Chicago. ” Dave Bargeman, Bruce Fowler, Tom “Bones” Malone, and Fred Wesley are also recognized as important players in the Jazz/rock style.
The last style of Jazz is known as Contemporary. Neo-Bop is the stylistic approach being used today which draws from earlier bop styles, while it draws from some of the innovations of Free Jazz. As the technical demands of Jazz have increased, contemporary Jazz trombonists make use of techniques pioneered by earlier trombonists, such as doodle tonguing and against the grain playing. A well-known trombonist of today era is Conrad Herring. Conrad Herring is known for playing with Clark Terry and Toshiba Sukiyaki. Herring uses an amazing technique which is a strong high register and great endurance.
He bases many of his melodies from pentatonic, whole tone, and diminished scales, such as this whole tone scale passage. Herring’s soloing is always highly energetic. However, there are many trombonists performing in the contemporary Jazz era such as Steve Turret and Robin Banks are noted “Neo-Bop” style players. Bill Water’s is known for having unsurpassed technical command of the trombone. Hal Crook and Mark Nightingale are also noted contemporary Jazz trombone performers. Dave February 21, 2010 “A Stylistic Analysis of Jazz Trombone Through Transcribed Solos. (06/10/2011) http:// www. Wilkinson. Common=121 ) Artist: King Oliver and Louis Armstrong Year Recorded: April 6, 1923 Jazz Period: Dixieland A. List 2-3 musical characteristics of this selection: There is not a lot of range being used in this selection and it sounds like he his only using a few notes and not a multitude of notes on the scale. B. How is this selection similar to the previous Listening Log selection? They both are faster paced songs that makes you want to get up and dance. They both are sing the trombone. C. How is it different?
This selection is in a different era, so there isn’t a lot of advancement here. This sounds like a song you would here back in an old western movie at a local saloon. D. What is your SUBJECTIVE reaction to this selection? Like it/dislike it? Why? D. 2 What does it remind you of? I liked this selection oddly enough. It reminded me of this amusement park I used to go to as a kid with my parents. It reminds me of happier times when loved ones in my family were still alive. Listening Log #2: “l Thought About You” Artist: Carl Fontana Year Recorded: September 5, 1985
Jazz Period: Cool Jazz Fontana is using double time passages; there is also a relaxed swing feeling. B. How is this selection similar to the previous Listening Log selection? Other than the use of a trombone and a couple of other similar instruments there is not anything that I can find similar to this selection and Dipper Mouth Blues. These selections are completely different. Dipper Mouth Blues, makes you want to get up and dance, where as I Thought About You Just makes you want to tap your foot. There are a lot more instruments being brought into this piece as well, it is obvious this was performed by a larger band.