1) The emergence of diversity: Diversity among culture and society derived from the diverse terrains the Siberians encountered in the new world. The northwestern tribes lived close to big bodies of water and relied greatly on fishing for survival. They depended on whale, halibut, and salmon since preserving it through drying was easy to do. Due to this tribes in the Northwestern region did not rely greatly on hunting, instead they had the luxury of free time.
During this time they picked up the art of woodcarving which they used to denote class and wealth. 14) Like the Northwestern tribes the Southwestern tribes did not rely greatly on hunting, instead they relied greatly on agriculture. This paved the way to a more relaxed way of life where they picked up pottery and had a much more stable life. This also made it possible for a social hierarchy to emerge. (16) Unlike the North and southwestern regions tribes that lived in the great basin region had a much more diverse way of life due to the diverse climate. The way of life relied greatly on whether it was a rainy season or not.
During rainy periods tribes could rely on large marshes and lakes for fishing. While during the drier seasons tribes relied on the foothills of mountains where there were deer, antelope, and rabbits. Due to this, tribes in the great basin region had a less stable life since they always had to be on the move for hunting. (13) Diversity among culture and society emerged from the need for survival, due to the distinct terrains the new world provided, diversity emerged. [word count: 264] 2) Impacts on the Native people:
Columbus’ discovery of the Americas made Spain the powerhouse of Europe for almost four centuries. Although Spain became powerful, rich, and mighty, the natives of the Americas were given a different fate, which would prove to be “…catastrophic for Native Americans”. With the introduction of Europeans, Native Americans were introduced to many things of the old world. They were shown firearms, domesticated animals, iron technology, wheeled vehicles, and sailing ships (40). But there were many unknown factors that would soon desolate the natives well being and way of life.
Relations between the natives and Europeans soon became sour when the search for immense riches overwhelmed and destroyed the bond between the two groups. There were “…many massacres of Mexican Nobles”(41), and the advanced societies of the natives were left in the dust of conquistadors. Not only were the towns destroyed but the people were used for unregulated labor that were unfair and dangerous to their health. Soon a social hierarchy arose from the mistreatments of the natives. Anyone who was pure European was seen as the elite and were well respected, but for those who were partially or fully native were apart of the lower class(46).
The men were subjected to hard labor, while some of the women were raped and sexually abused. (48) The arrival of Europeans to America did more harm to the natives then advance its society and culture. The Europeans had unknowingly brought over deadly diseases that would soon wipe out almost ninety-percent of the natives population(53). This in time would shift the scales of life, natives would no longer be the majority but instead the minority, America was no longer theirs to keep. [word count: 275] 3)
Impacts on European countries: The drive to expand wealth and territory drove Spain to send Christopher Columbus to explore the seas, in the end it would change the way of life forever. With the discoveries of the Americas Spain became the powerhouse and envy of the other European countries (32). They had stumbled upon a route which they believed would engulf them with riches. Although the outcome did not come out the way they had expected it, Spain became enriched in many other ways. This new route to the Americas had opened up a Transatlantic highway used for commerce and trade.
It would soon be known as the Columbian exchange and is still used today. The Europeans used the the Transatlantic highway to transport goods like corn, potato, and tobacco which they had found in the New World. Corn and potato would become a staple food for the lower classes in Europe, while tobacco would change the way of life for the people who crossed the Transatlantic highway in hopes of fame, fortune, and a better life (39). Many countries had hoped to find the same riches Spain had found.
France, England, and Portugal all would soon take the chance to find these said riches. Although they were not as successful as Spain they were able to shape the way of life we see today. (55,56). [word count: 211] 4) Natives response: Many of the settlers that arrived in North America encountered natives, some were welcomed with kindness and open arms, others with hostility, or even curiosity. For Columbus and his crew they were welcomed with open arms, although this was true the crew violated the natives trust and were soon killed (37).
The Spaniards that settled in North America also had little respect for natives, they used them for hard labor and tried to change their culture and beliefs. These in turn forced a way of life that wasn’t theirs. Due to the mistreatments of the natives they retaliated through defacing and destroying things associated with christianity, they also killed two-thirds of all the missionaries (83). The natives refused to conform to the Spaniards way of life so they drove them out. Unlike the Spaniards, settlers from England understood that the natives were powerful and were their own individuals.
For a while the two groups did not interfere in each others lives but the settlers were not trained for life in Virginia and were slowly dying. Powhatan who was the natives’ chief saw an opportunity to become allies with the settlers, he would traded corn for some of the settlers iron technology (65). After the death of Powhatan his brother took over as chief and severed ties with the English settlers when he carried out two surprise attacks.
The settlers that arrived in America encountered natives that gave a wide range of reactions based on the way they were treated. word count: 247] 5) Impact of tobacco: The emergence of tobacco was a life changing advancement that transformed the way of life in Virginia and America forever. The wild crop had once grown freely and wasn’t cultivated for its profit. Before English settlement Indians were unaware of the great impact it would make, and had used it for centuries (68). The production of tobacco assisted in the boom of servants and slaves that came to the new world (69). When tobacco first hit the market in the old world it was scarce and expensive to buy.
This encouraged more planters to enlist in more indentured servants to create more profit. As production grew tobacco became more accessible and prices dropped. With the decline in price freed servants had a difficult time acquiring land of their own, due to this it pushed the social hierarchy further apart between classes. As life improved in the new world mortality rates dropped. With it elite planters had the ability to invest in African slaves which were more profitable in the long run, since they were never required to be released (77).
In the end tobacco had an immense impact on the demographic of the new world we see today. Life in Virginia was no longer for “… aimless adventures…” but it changed “…to a society of dedicated planters” (69). [word count: 213] 6) Indentured servants vs Slavery The outburst in tobacco production created a large surge of settlers that had come over in hopes of freedom and tobacco money. More than half of these settlers would become indentured servants who would server tobacco plants for four to seven years, during their time of service plantation owners would provide food and shelter (70).
After serving their time they would be released and given back their freedom, they would also be given some barrels of corn and a suit of clothes (71). Like the indentured servants slaves from Barbados came to America due to the boom in production of sugarcane (81). They were also poor and mainly men who had come over. Although slaves had also come over for labor work, they weren’t treated the same as the white indentured servants that came over during the tobacco boom. Due to their difference in skin color slaves were put to dangerous jobs in the field.
They were also never allowed to be set free, which meant that their children would continue to serve for the plantations for years to come. Although slaves were three to five times more expensive than white indentured servants, they were worth while due to the longevity of their work (85). In the end African slaves dominated the workforce in Carolina where they took up one half of the population. [word count: 221] 7) Social hierarchy: Social hierarchy before the introduction of tobacco was almost nonexistent, during this time all settlers were equal.
They were poor Europeans who had come to America in hopes of good fortune. But once tobacco was introduced social hierarchy started to emerge. With the markets flooded with ample amounts of tobacco its price began to deteriorate, this made it harder for freed servants to buy land and become rich like the planters who had sheltered them. The freed servants who had come to America in hopes of immense riches remained poor in the new world, due to this it contributed to the gap in social class (77). Bacon’s Rebellion challenged social hierarchy when former servants who were fed up with the entitled elites, became outraged.
Although servants were cheap they were often disruptive. Bacon’s Rebellion showed that when things did not come out the way servants wanted it could end in some troublesome events (79). As life continued to improve in the new world mortality rates dropped. Elite planters were now more prone to investing in African slaves, which were more profitable in the long run. Slaves had also appealed to the planters since they could be controlled politically, which brought down the likelihood of an uprising or retaliation like Bacon’s Rebellion.
With the increase in African Slaves indentured servants noticed that although they were poor, they had the ability to become free and slaves didn’t have that. In the end this led to a social hierarchy based not only on class but also race. Indentured servants saw that they had it better than the slaves who were stuck (85). All of these factors led to a social hierarchy where white elite plantation owners were at the top, with white indentured servants in the middle and African slaves at the bottom.