The History of Gadwal Fort in India
Physical history of the monument till date Movement/ Enclosure spaces Configuration of spaces w. R. T the activities of the people of the era Geometry of the place Art forms Pillars and Beams Chases Relationship between the palace and temple Rituals and customs Present condition of the monument The causes for deterioration Conclusion Recommendation for conservation Abstract:
A fortress is a large place with a military stronghold sometimes within a town. Gadwall, a small town in the current Unbarring District of the state of Andorra Pradesh, was once the place of the reigning King/ Queen of the Gadwall Shaman. Gadwall Fort was the seat of the King of the Gadwall Shaman. The fortress, a legacy bestowed upon the government of India, Is presently the campus for the Maharani ODL Lax Defame Arts and Science College (M. A. L. D College). The government college has used the fort as Its campus from 1960. The fort has lost Its Orlando magnificence and is now in ruins.
The reasons include almost no maintenance of the dedicated to Lord Canvasses Swami. This study is an attempt to document the Fort from its birth to its present state. A study and analysis is also undertaken of the spaces in the fort in terms movement and the effects of the changing perception of spaces in the fort. An attempt is made to derive the purpose of each space and the difference in perception changing over time. The study shall reveal the various influences on the architecture of the fort, which include the outer influences like the McHugh rule, Nab rule and inner influences of rituals and culture of the region.
In conclusion, ideas for the renovation and preservation of the Gadwall fort in various forms are presented. Preface: Indian architecture and art forms are the most significant form of communication with the past. The carvings in stone, the paintings on walls; every form of art conveys the message through the ages. The way of living, the traditions followed, the social norms that once dictated the very form of life one led, all these are an integral part of the history that is on the verge of being lost. “The manifestation of an idea, architecture is a celebration of life” – Hating Panda
The idea that once resulted in the building of a structure, to defend against enemies and to protect those within its walls, a fort personifies the imagination that led to its construction. Built to fulfill the wishes of those who have believed in it the fort is a celebration of life. Architecture in India is the combined form of various cultures, civilizations starting with the Harpoon/ Monongahela to the Aryan influences. The Persian and McHugh architecture are integrated into the traditional Dravidian and South Indian architecture to ultimately lead to the present form of Indian architecture.
The history of such architecture is what enables it to communicate and integrate the multiple value systems of the people that have lived and will always live in it. Any building constructed in India will show the effects of being built in such a varied and diversified culture. The structure can represent a single influence or combine all its history rolled into one. The study of such a building shows how the history has influenced its conception, the present in its use, and the future in its vision. Introduction: Krishna Tang workaday Samaritan manqué sad hardstand assists sere Ramadan pariah – Was Vaughan in Brahmas Purina
Archaisms (The land that lies between the two holy rivers, the Krishna and The Thunderhead, is the chosen land of God. The almighty with all his manifestations always protects the people living in this sacred land. ) Gadwall, a small town on the banks of the river Krishna, is part of this sacred land. Gadwall is popularly known as INDIAN GADWALL”, as the rulers of Gadwall Shaman had a great reputation for men of letters, poets and scholars of Sanskrit and Deluge from far and wide places including Thumbnail rail and road on the Hydrated-Banger route, is situated 200 SMS away from Hydrated Norte to Banger.
Gadwall has a railway station and many trains in this route connect Gadwall to many important places across India including Delhi, Jasper, Atrophic, Banger, Moser etc. It is 15 SMS away from National Highway No. 7 and is connected at Revival Chartist. It is surrounded by 4 important towns on 4 sides, Embargoing on the North, Handcart on the East, Kronor on the South and Archaic of Karakas on the West. Gadwall was in fact a part of Archaic district before the reorganization of the district of erstwhile Hydrated state in 1956.
Gadwall Shaman formed in the end of the 17th century during the reign of Raja Commandos 1663-1712). The areas of CIA, Kendall (present Kronor) together formed the basis of this Shaman. The town developed due to the presence of the Gadwall fortress as the main stronghold of the kings during their reign. The Imperial Gazetteer of India states that the Shaman contained one town, Gadwall (population 10,195) and 214 villages covering an area of 864 square miles (approve. 2338 square kilometers) with a population (1901) of 968,491. The fort was built by Raja Commandos during the beginning of the 18th century I. . , from 1702 to 1712. The king had declared independent rule in the aftermath of the fall of the Katydid Dynasty. The building of the fort was a necessity in the sense that to declare independence the King risked the attack of the other smaller kingdoms that arose at the same time. Thus, the structure was built to repel frequent attacks and necessitated the construction to mainly focus on the defense mechanisms. The Krishna and Thunderhead rivers water the northern and southern lands surrounding the fort making them very fertile due to alluvial soils deposited on the banks.
The remaining land is mostly ‘mamas’ land and uncultivated waste. The fort has been in use since its conception in the year f 1702. By the end of monarchical rule in India in 1948 the fort had served its residents for 246 years. The fort was then donated to the Union Government of India along with a donation of RSI. 25000 for the use of the fort as an educational institution. The Maharani Dad Lax Defame degree college was established in 1960 and the fort has since been used as its campus. The addition of new buildings when a portion of the old collapsed was an accepted procedure.
The gross negligence and petty vandalism has resulted in the ruin of one of the most important historical artifact, the fort itself. The present condition of the fort is a crumbling ruin with little or no maintenance. Composition: The fort built in 1712 had been occupied and functional till the end of monarchical rule in 1948. It was then handed over to the Government of United India. The fort was built as the main defense against attacks by armies with cannons so it’s most important feature was that of the large rampart completely surrounding the palace and the temple within.
The towers at intervals form the place of battlements. In its original form, a moat of 25 meters width and 4 meters depth, home to a large number of crocodiles completed the defense. The fort is divided into three distinct zones; the temple, the palace for the King, and extensive grounds that worked as an area for military and public use. The main rampart wall there are two other entrances used for different purposes. One was the entry for the commoners, the courtiers and visitors. The other entrance was solely used by the reigning ruler of the fort be it the Queen or the King.
The misalignment of entry points was deliberate and was made to discourage a direct charge on the gates. Zones of the fort The building is built in the beginning of the 17th century, when the influence of the Tamil Dravidian style of architecture had Just begun to fade and the McHugh architecture had begun its roots into the style of architecture in India. Thus the structure is a combination of both of these styles and with the addition of local artists and rituals the design and style of the structure is unique to the region.
Rampart wall: The outer wall of the fort is built in an almost perfect circular shape with battlements at intervals. The wall is constructed on a foundation made in the rubble stone style of the Vagrantly architecture. The rubble stone foundation provides the stability squired of the 10 to 12 meters (30-40 feet) high wall which is 2 meters in width at the bottom and 1 meter at the top. The wall is made of a combination of clay, small stones and a mixture of Jaggier and rice working as the adhesive cement. This conforms to the ancient recipe used prominently in mud structures.
The thickness of the walls and the height are a necessity to hold against a charge of cannon balls. The walls form the main defense of the fort and hence were built with meticulous and careful methods. The boulevard that ran along the battlements was a corridor for patrolling without making contact with the moat. The inner side of the wall is a continuous line of stone rubble cladding broken only by the entrance gates at the two access points. One entrance leads to the public open space in front of the main gate of the palace and the temple and the other leads directly into the royal court of the palace.
Thus, one entrance is deemed to have been used only by the commoners whereas the other was used prominently by the King/ Queen’s family and guests. The Achaean Save Swami Temple: The temple is said to have been built for the sole use of the Royal family. Though, biannual fairs held in town allowed public access to the temple especially when elaborate by the royalty themselves. The temple is built in typical Dravidian style but entirely with granite stone. The locally available granite is cheap and lasts longer than timber. The treated stone column and beam construction style is prominently used.
The copular at the entrance rises over 20 meters high with an entrance gate around 6 meters high. This is consistent with the South Indian Dravidian style of temple architecture. The shelter for the chariot used in public rallies of the statues of Gods/ Goddesses is placed beside the entrance of the temple itself. To the side of the ample is a smaller entrance to the temple which is mainly used by the priests. The pillars and beams of the temple are highly decorated carvings of stone in various motifs from the Hindu mythology.
The exquisite carvings are said to be the work of local and foreign artists. The central temple is dedicated to the Achaean Save Swami Temple with the shaggier holding the deity. The pillared halls in the temple made of huge slabs of wagons ( rituals ). The temple beside the central deity temple is dedicated to the wife of Achaean Save Swami and was a later addition to the original temple. The unfinished temple to the right of the central deity temple is said to have been constructed as a public marriage hall but was left unfinished due to unknown reasons.
The Palace: The palace is again segregated into different realms based on the antiquated notions of women’s privacy. The Public space requiring an elaborate fade, a place for viewing the occasion by the royalty yet removed from the people, and a place to allow entry into the more private realms of the palace. Within the palace, there are again realms separating the lives of those in the royal court and those from the royal family. The royal courts and places for the communing of court formed the part of the royal realm.
The private quarters of the King and Queen formed the rest of the palace. The private quarters are complimented by a set of servants, vassals and other personnel of the royal household. The external walls of the palace are mostly made with stone, but the internal walls, floors and ceilings are made of brick, mortar and a cement of lime plaster. The inner walls are coated with lime and smoothed to a shine. Public space: The public fade forms an important part of the palace structure as it is the most prominently used and gains the most publicity.
The fade of the palace in Gadwall fort was made unrelieved wall on the ground floor and exquisitely carved teak wooden bay windows on the first floor. The hall covered by these windows is said to have been used by the Queen and her handmaidens. The windows exactly above the entrance gate of the palace were said to have been decorated by colored glass imported from foreign countries. The fade maintained a semi open space around the gate with a large public area leading to it. The temple copular, the fade and the magistrate’s court on the opposite side of the palace frame this open space.