Math Case Study MCC2. MD. 7: Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a. m. and p. m. Work/Test Sample Analyses* Work Sample 1: This is a sample of a morning work assignment Mark was given upon arrival to the classroom. After completing the sheet, students glue them into their Math Journals and justify their answer for a problem of their choice. The work shows an analog clock that is displaying 8:00 on its face. The question asks, “what time is shown? ” Mark answered “8:00. ” Work Sample 2: This sample is another excerpt from Mark’s morning work.
The work shows an analog clock that is displaying 6:00 on its face. The question asks, “what time is shown? ” Mark answered “6:00. ” Work Sample 3: This sample is also from Mark’s morning work. The work shows an analog clock without hands. The directions state, “Draw the hands on the clock to show 12:30. ” Mark drew a short hand pointing to the 12 and a longer hand pointing to the 6. I can tell that he had erased where he had drawn a hand pointing to the three – I assume that’s where he originally thought the “30” should go. Work Sample 4: This sample also comes from Mark’s morning work.
The work shows an analog clock that is displaying 5:05 on its face. The question asks, “what time is shown? ” Mark answered “5:25. ” Test Sample 1: The test sample shows three clocks and provides the directions, “Write the time. ” The first clock displays 2:00. The second clock displays 12:20. The third clock displays 10:30. For the first clock, Mark wrote, “2:00,” which is correct. For the second clock, Mark wrote, “4:00. ” On the clock, he has extended the hour hand to see if it points directly to the 12, directly to the 1, or in between, which is a strategy his teacher taught the class.
He apparently got the hour an minute hand confused, which is why he put 4:00 as his answer. For the third clock, Mark wrote, “10:30,” which is correct. Test Sample 2: The test sample shows three clocks. The first clock displays 7:15. The second clock displays 6:35. The third clock displays 2:05. For the first clock, Mark wrote, “15:35. ” For the second clock, Mark wrote, “35:30. ” For the third clock, Mark wrote, “5:10. ” All three answers are incorrect. In all three problems, Mark uses the minute values only. He also writes what would be the minute value before what would be the hour value.
The next section asks, “Which clock shows 12:00? ” Underneath the questions are four digital clock choices. The choices are A) 6:00, B) 12:30, C) 6:30, and D) 12:00. Mark selected option A. The displays on the digital clocks are dark, so I wonder if he had trouble reading the displayed times. The third section has two questions where the student must indicate if an even happens in the a. m. or the p. m. The first question asks, ‘When do you have your breakfast? ” Mark selected p. m. The second question asks, ‘When do you watch TV after dinner? ” Mark selected p. m. , which is correct.
Test Sample 3: The test sample shows three clocks. The first clock displays 7:15. The second clock displays 6:35. The third clock displays 2:05. For the first clock, Mark wrote, “7:15,” which is correct. For the second clock, Mark wrote, “6:35,” which is correct. For the third clock, Mark wrote, “5:10. ” In this problem, Mark uses the minute values only. He also writes what would be the minute value before what would be the hour value. This is the same mistake he made on the same question from test sample two. These samples were taken during different terms of the school year.
The second section has two statements where the student must indicate if an even happens in the a. m. or the p. m. The first statement is, “Kids go to school in the morning. ” Mark selected a. m. , which is correct. The second question asks, “Kids go to sleep in the evening. ” Mark selected p. m. , which is correct. Test Sample 4: This test sample asks two questions and provides four choices for each question. The first question asks, “Which clock shows 7:05? ” The choices for this question are analog clocks that display the following times: A) 6:00, B) 6:50, C) 7:05, and D) not here.
Mark selected option C, which was correct. The second question asks, ‘Which clock shows 11:40? ” The choices for this question are analog clocks that display the following times: A) 11:25, B) 11:30, C) 11:45, and D) not here. Mark selected option B. I wonder if Mark got his minute values confused or if he just chose one of the clocks since he could not find one that matched the given time. *Because I was working to tutor this student with time, it was the only aspect of his work samples | focused on. Student Observations: Observation one: Tobserved Mark for twenty minutes during Independent Reading (IR) time.
Mark read the books, The Animal Book and Can We Save the Tiger? during this time. This student started out very engaged in the books, but as the IR time went on, he became more and more fidgety and disengaged from the book. He had recently had his desk moved away from a student he liked to talk to frequently. The move aided in the focus he had at the beginning of IR; he is actually staying on task, rather than talking like he did before. A few days later, Mark excitedly started telling me about things he found in his book as we were lining up for lunch.
Observation two: T observed Mark for twenty minutes during Reading Workshop. Reading Workshop began with a mini-lesson review on compound sentences. Students went back to their desks and used their Independent Reading books to find compound sentences. Students were given three sticky notes to break up the two independent clauses and conjunction (and, but, or). Students must copy the sentence correctly with correct capitalization. During this time, the teacher explained the “compound sentence test” using another student’s example. After the example, he did not recheck his sentence using the test.
His chosen sentence was “We went to the park,’ said Louise. ‘And Said mom. ” Observation three: I observed Mark for ten minutes while I was assessing his Math Facts fluency. In the previous term, this student was not proficient in his Math Facts fluency and required some extra work on it. Every night, the students are assigned Math Facts practice for homework. When I assessed him for Term 4, I was very impressed with how much improvement he has shown in his Math Facts fluency. He knew almost all of his Math Facts in the allotted time and scored in the proficient level for his grade.
I commented that I could tell he had been practicing and he told me that his mom had taught him a strategy for figuring out subtraction problems quickly: start with the [subtrahend] and count up until you get to the [minuend]; the amount of numbers between is the [difference]. Observation four: I observed Mark throughout the duration of my reteach lesson on time. Mark was one of the more attentive students during this lesson and did well with the concept being taught. For the activity, I gave students an hour of the day and asked them to draw what they would do at that time on a typical school day.
Because I had more hours than students, I gave Mark two times so I could really see if he grasped the concept of a. m. and p. m. that I was trying to enforce. Mark had the times 7:00 a. m. and 11:00 p. m. For 7 a. m. , he drew himself getting ready for school. For 11 p. m. , he drew himself asleep. Mark was doing a wonderful job of taking the concept I was teaching and applying it to this lesson. I even heard him trying to explain the concept to other students who were struggling. Observation five: Tobserved Mark throughout the afternoon of review games for upcoming SLO testing.
Students played on teams – boys versus girls – in a “Hollywood Squares” style of game. The class played several rounds to focus on several areas of testing. Students took turns picking the square they wanted to attempt. Before giving an answer, the playing student had to discuss the answer with their entire team. After each student had answered their question, they went to the back of the line. It was very common throughout the game that students sitting near the front of the line were very involved and interested in helping out their teammates, but once they went to the back of the line, the participation level decreased majorly.
I frequently had to remind students at the back of the line that they had to be involved in the team discussions. Mark was not an exception to this rule. When he was near the front of the line, he was very involved in the game and discussions; once he went to the back of the line, he was not as involved and preferred to talk to his friends who were also at the back of the line. Mark did well during the game and in assisting his teammates during the discussions he took part in. Games, Activities, and Additional Resources One game that Mark plays to correct this misunderstanding is one that he often plays in the classroom.
A time is displayed on a small analog clock manipulative. On a small whiteboard, Mark must write the corresponding time in digital format. Another game used to correct Mark’s error patterns is called “Race to Noon. ” Mark and his opposing partner both have a clock mat and a roll of dough that acts as the hour hand of the clock. Both players start with their hour hand at midnight. They take turns rolling a dice that can have them go forward 1 or 2 hours, back 1 hour, all the way back to midnight, etc. The first person to get their hour hand all the way around the clock and back to the 12 (noon) wins!
Below is a link to an online game, Telling Time. In this game, the player must help the character, Marvin, travel through time to find his friend. The player can choose to use an analog clock or a digital clock and make whichever clock they choose display the requested time. There are four stages to this game. The first stage gives times that are “on the hour,” such as 7:00 and 3:00.
The second stage gives minute values in increments of five, such as 9:05 and 12:45. The third stage gives statements like “make it 15 of 12” or “make it 25 past 3. The fourth stage also uses the of/past wording, but uses quarter and half increments. Some example phrases from this stage would be “make it half past 5” or “make it a quarter to 6. ” Players must be careful, because the clock moves in increments of a minute; if you are a minute off, you get the question wrong. http://www. abcya. com/ telling_time. htm Below is a link to an online game, Bedtime Bandits. In this game, players play the role of a boy or girl who aims to stay up as late as possible by shining a magic flashlight on the correct descending clock.
Each round, ten clocks descend from the bedroom ceiling and students must eliminate them before they touch the ground by shining the flashlight on the clock that matches the analog prompt. For each clock eliminated, the bedtime increases by one minute. Each round becomes slightly harder than the last by increasing the amount of minute values shown on the clocks. Where the first round gives times that are “on the hour,” the next round adds half values, then quarter values, then adds in various five minute values, then one minute values, then statements such as “3 hours and 10 minutes after 11:40”.
These higher levels would need to be avoided until the player has had more practice with the game, but its race-like style will be fun for students. http://mrnussbaum. com/ bedtime-2/ Below is a link to an online game, Time. In this game, players can choose three versions of the game: “Telling the Time,” “AM of PM? ,” or “the 24 Hour Clock. ” In “Telling the Time,” the hands on the clock spin until the player stops the clock. Then, the player must type the time the clock displays.
In “AM of PM? ,” the ands on the clock spin until the player stops the clock. Beside the clock, there is a window that shows the sky changing from day to night. The player must type the time the clock displays, as well as if it is AM or PM based on what the window displays. In “the 24 Hour Clock,” the hands on the clock spin until the player stops the clock. Then, the player must type the time the clock displays in 24-hour format. http://www. bgfl. org/bgfl/custom/ resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks2/maths/time/index. htm