Roman Fever

????????????????????? ??? (??????????? ?? ?? , 445000) ?? ?????????????? ,??????????????????? ,???????????????????? ,??????????????????????????????????????????? (Alida? Sladea? Grice? Ansley)(??? ·??????? ·??? )???????? ,????????????????????? ,?????????? ????????? ;???? ;?? An Analysis of the Application of Cooperative Principle and Conversational Implicature in Roman Fever Li Yu’e (School of Foreign Languages, Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi, 445000) ?Abstract?

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According to Grice’s conversational implicature theory , conmunicators should conmunicate based on the cooperative principle which consists of four criteria,namely: quantity, quality, relation and manner. Betrayal of those four criteria means the arising of conversational implicature. This paper intends to apply the theory of conversational implicature into the conversations of Roman fever’s main characters(Alida? Sladea and Grice? Ansley)to give a pragmatic analysis , in order to help readers better understand the development of stoy and the main characters, and ultimately comprehend the work’s theme. Key words? Cooperative Principle;conversational implicature; criteria ?? :??? ·?? ??? ·??? 19??? 20?????????????? ,????? ,??????????????????????????????????? 1905??? ,1920??????????????????? ,??????????????????????????????????? ,?????? ,??????????? ,?????? ,???? ,????????????????????????????????????????????????? ·????????? ,???? ,?????????????? ??????? ??????????????????????????? :??? ·??????? ·??????? ·???????? 25????????????????????? ,???????????????? ,??????????? ,???????? 25?? ,?????????????????????????? ,????????????????? ,?????????????????? ,????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? 25??????? ,???????? ,???????????? ,????????????????????? ,????????????????? ???????????????? ,?????????? ,??????????? ,??????????????????? ,????????????????????????????????? ,???????? ???????????????????????? ,?????????????? ,???????????? ,?????????? ,??????????????????????????????????????? ,???????? ,?????????? ,?????????????????????????? ,????????????????????? ——??????? ——???????????????????????????????? ,?????????????????? ,????????? ,??????????????? ,???????????? ,?????????????? ??????????????? 1967? ,????????????????????????? (Logic and Conversation)???? “???? Cooperative Principle)”???? ,”?????? ,?????????????????????? ,??????????????????????? “? 1? “???????????????????????? ,?????????????? ,???????????? “? 2??????? ,???????????? ,??????????????????????? ,?????????????????? ,? “???? “???????? “???? “,???????????????? (Quantity),???????????????????? ;???? (Quality),??????????? ,????????????? ;???? (Relation),?????????????? ;???? (Manner),??????????????? ????????? ,????????????? “???? ,?????? ,???????????????????????????? “? 3? ?????????????????? ,??????????? ,? “???? “(Conversational Implicature)???????????? (2003)????? ,?????????????????????????? ???? “?????? ,??????????????????????????? ??????? ,??????????????? :1?????? ,??????????? 2?????????????? 3????? “?? “,?????? ,???????????????????? 4????????????????? 4? ?????????????????????? ,?????????? ,??????????????????? ,???????????? ,??????????????? ,????????? ,?????????????????????????????????? ,?????? ,?????????? ,??????????????????? ,?????????????????? ,???????????? ,??????????? ,??????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ,?????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????????????? ,????????????????????????? ??????????????? 1.????? ????????????????? ,??????? ,???????????????? ,????????????????????? ——????????? ,???? ,?????????????? ,??????? 25?? ,??????????????? ,?????????????????????????? ,??? (Id)??????? (Ego)? ,???????????? ,???? ,?????? ,???????? (superego)???? ,?????????????????? ,???????? ,?????????? (1) Mrs. Slade :Well,I don’t see why we shouldn’t just stay here. After all,it’s still the most beautiful view in the world. Mrs. Ansley: It always will be,to me. Mrs. Slade : It ‘s a view we’ve both been familiar with for a good many years. When we first me t here we were younger than our girls are now.

You remember! Mrs. Ansley:Oh,yes,I remember. There’s that head-waiter wondering. ?5? ????? ,?????????????????? ,??????????????????????????????????????? ,???? “?????? “?????????????????? “?????? “??????????????? ,?? 25????? “????? “??????????????????? ,??????????? ,?????????? ,”???? “???? ,???????? “???? “?????????? ,??????????????????????????????????????? ,??????????????? ??????? ,?????????????????? ,??????????????? ,???????????????????? ,???????????????? ,??????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????? :”When we first meet here we were younger than our girls are now. you remember? “Oh,yes,I remember. ” ???????????? ,?????????????????? ,?????????????? ,”There’s that head-waiter wondering. ” ???????????? ,???????????????????????? ,????????????????????????????????????? (2) Mrs. Slade: Well, why not! We might do worse. There’s no knowing, I suppose, when the girls will be back. Do you even know back from where? I don’t! Mrs. Ansley: I think those young. Italian aviators we met at the Embassy invited them to fly to Tarquinia for tea. I suppose they’ll want to wait and fly back by moonlight. Mrs. Slade: Moonlight-moonlight! What a part it still plays.

Do you suppose they’re as sentimental as we were? ??????????????? ,???????? ,???????????? ,????????????????????? ,?????????????????? ,?????????????????????? ,???????????????????????????? ,????????????????? “?? “(moonlight)???????????????? ??? “?? “??????????????? ,??????????? ,?????????? ,???????????????? ,?????????????????????????? ,?????? ,??????????? ,??????????? ,????????? ,???????????? ,????? ???????? ,???????????????? ,???? “???? “???????? ,???? “Museum specimens of old New York”(“?????????? “),?? ,??????????????????? ,?????????????????? ,??????? “‘vividness'”(“‘?? ‘”)?????? ??????????????????? ,?????????????? ,????????????????????????? ,??????????????????? 2.????? (1) Mrs. Slade:Five o’clock already. Mrs. Ansley: There’s bridge at the Embassy at five. Mrs. Slade:Bridge, did you say! Not unless you want to…… But I don’t think I will, you know. Mrs. Ansley: Oh, no. I don’t care to at all. It’s so lovely here; and so full of old memories, as you say. Mrs. Slade:I was just thinking, what different things Rome stands for to each generation of travelers. To our grandmothers, Roman fever; to our mothers, sentimental dangers-how we used to be guarded! to our daughters, no more dangers than ghe middle of Main Stree. They don’t know it-but how much they’re missing! I always used to think, that our mothers had a much more difficult job than our grandmothers. When Roman fever stalked the streets it must have been with such beauty calling us, and the spice of disobedience thrown in, and no worse risk than catching cols during the cool hour after sunset, the mothers used to be put to it to keep us in-didn’t they! Mrs. Ansley: One,two,three—slip two;yes,they must have been. ???????????????????????? “Five o’clock already. ” ??????????????? ??????? ,?????? 25????????????????? ,??????? ,” There’s bridge at the Embassy at five. ” ?? ,???? ,???????????????? ,???????? ;???? ,????????????????????????????????????????????? 25????????? ,????????? ?????????????????? ,??????? ,?????????????? ,?????? ,????????????????????? ,?????????????????????????? ,”???? ,??????? ‘?? ‘:????? ‘???? ‘? ‘???? ‘,???? ‘???? ‘? ‘???? ‘,????? ‘???? ‘? ‘???? ‘,’??? ‘?????????????????????????? “? 6????????????????? ,???????????????????????????? , ?? “???? “???????????????????????? ,???? ,???????? ???????? ,????????????? ,?????????????????? ,?????? “One,two,three—slip two. ” ?????????????????? ,????????????????????????????????????????????? ,???????? ,?????????????????? ,?????? (Id)???? (Ego),??????????????????????????? (2) Mrs. Slade:I-oh, nothing. I was only thinking how your Babs carries everything before her. That Campllieri boy is one of the best matches in Rome. Don’t look so innocent, my dear-you know he is. And I was wondering, ever so respectfully, you understand…. Wondering how two such exemplary characters as you and Horace had managed to produce anything quite so dynamic. Mrs. Ansley:I think you overrate Babs, my dear.

Mrs. Slade: No, I don’t. I appreciate her. And perhaps envy you. Oh, my girl’s perfect; if I were a chronic invalid I’d-well, I think I’d rather be in Jenny’s hands. There must be times… but there! I always wanted a brilliant daughter… and never quite understood why I got an angel instead. Mrs. Ansley:Babs is an angel too. ?????????????? ,????????????? ,?????????????? ,??????? ,??????????????????? “and never quite understood why I got an angel instead. “??????????????????????????????? ,??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ,???????? ,????????? “Babs is an angel too. ??????? ,????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????? ,???????? ,??????????? ,?????????????????????????????????? ,???????????????????????? ,??????????? (3) Mrs. Slade:The sun’s set. You’re not afraid, my dear? Mrs. Ansley:Afraid- Mrs. Slade:Of Roman fever or pneumonia! I remember how ill you were that winter. As a girl you had a very delicate throat, hadn’t you? Mrs. Ansley:Oh, we’re all right up here. Down below, in the Forum, it does get deathly cold, all of a sudden… but not here. Mrs. Slade:Ah, of course you know because you had to be so careful.

Whenever I look at the Forum from up here, I remember that story about a great-aunt of yours, wasn’t she? A dreadfuily wicked great-aunt? …… Mrs. Slade:Not often; but I was then. I was easily frightened because I was too happy. I wonder if you know what that means? Mrs. Ansley:I-yes… Mrs. Slade:…… And the Colosseum’s even colder and damper. Mrs. Ansley: The Colosseum-? Mrs. Slade:Yes. It wasn’t easy to get in, after the gates were locked for the night. Far from easy. Still, in those days it could be managed; it was managed, often. Lovers met there who couldn’t meet eslewhere. You knew that? Mrs. Ansley: I-I daresay. I don’t remember.

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