Portfolio Tasks Architecture History
Cam McBride History Reflect on your understanding of the concept of ‘history’. Has this changed in the first three weeks of the course? If so, how? If not, how did you come to your present understanding of how history works? Discuss at least two of the following: ‘cultural change’; the ‘Great Men’ theory of history; historicism; and historical materialism History is all around us, everywhere; every moment in time can be documented as a piece of history. This does not amount to how small the action was, or how long it took, it is all history.
The greater the effect on a race or culture the longer the moment stays with us and is documented through time. This is called Historicism. For example one of the major moments in the last 10 years would be 9/1 1; although this did not affect us directly the amount of information and documentation of this event was vast, branching out to all nations. How long will this moment last in history books; will they remember this moment in 100 years? Will it stand the test of time?
Something on a smaller scale may last longer, like inventions; things we still use to this day are a constant reminder of their history and where they came from. All people have a different timeline on history, some will gather information and not find it necessary or important, it hasn’t affected them so it is not a major event in history for them. For example; the Christopher earthquake is a huge moment in history for us; it has changed our lives and things will never be the same, but for someone in Denmark, the other side of the world, this is an almost irrelevant happening and a miniscule piece of information.
They might have seen a 2-minute clip on the news and this piece of history will not stay with them. Therefore history is our own little inline of importance; although we may have the same events, they occur in different orders and rankings depending on the culture that surrounds you. There may even be a completely different timeline for someone else. None of it matters because history is what is relevant to you. History is usually confined to one particular moment, giving one-person credit, securing their place in the historic books.
This in fact isn’t true; not one great man creates history; there is always an underlying history behind history. For example; one great man did not invent the telescope. This is the typical route of invention, one hat takes an idea from an already existing item and develops it, improves it and claims it as their own. This idea is not always true. Inventions had to start somewhere, usually occurring when something is needed to make a task easier. All inventions start somewhere, but very few people create something out of nothing.
And the struggle of being the first is always a factor, to keep your development a secret until perfected enough to show to the public, and by then someone else may have beaten you to it. It is not the great man who creates historic moments; it is the importance, need and reasons for the acts to take place. By Cam McBride Portfolio Task 2 – Cam McBride Ancient Rome Discuss the links between Ancient Rome and the United States of America in terms of at least two of the following: architecture; political organization; ideology; and empire.
Ancient Rome is a very solid base in the world of architecture; perfecting concrete, having large structures, and using original techniques developed by themselves. America being America, in my eyes initially took on one of the largest colonies to try and improve their work, be bolder, bigger and better. Ancient Rome used large columns including steps leading upward giving a sense of importance, much like the Greeks. This was seen throughout their government buildings and town centers. America’s important buildings are very similar in this way, especially in their political scene.
For example the Washington White House includes steps up to columns spread across the front facade. Also including a central dome, which the Romans invented and used often, giving a large open central focus to the building. Architecture is a big part of both cultures and is seen as a dominant force, controlling perspectives of power over the people. America is seen as the most powerful nation in the world currently, as ancient Rome once was; this is perceived and reinforced wrought their style of architecture.
Architecture and buildings are constantly changing over time but the base link to Rome is still there, the impression of power is still there, creating large buildings in bare surroundings, statues, and rare materials. This shows the obvious link to Roman architecture that still remains in our cultures, not only in America but all around the world. Another parallel between Roman culture and American culture is the appropriation of services, or political management.
Creating a safe environment for the people was essential for the Romans and America have adopted this style of giving private raciest power and responsibility of taking care of their own. This in fact meaner that there is no distinction between public and private responsibility, in turn creating corruption amongst the people [ (Spangles, 2011)]. Having private organizations try to solve and maintain many of the public services is a bad idea, things become hazy, overlapping from service to service, this may be a solution for the short term but in the long term, much like the Roman society, the consequences are huge.
They may not have an option at this stage but in my eyes, a modern society like America should eve the brains, the money and the manpower to solve issues, unlike Rome. Tasks like collecting taxes, patrolling the streets and borders were once seen as a public task [ (Spangles, 2011) America has changed this and the benefits don’t seem to outweigh the negatives, how much time will pass before the public rise up against and destroy a perfectly capable nation, much like Europe is currently experiencing.
Portfolio Task 3 – Cam McBride The Medieval World In what ways is this representative of the medieval world-view? The Chartres cathedral, also known, as the ‘Gothic Cathedral’ is one of the finest hurries in France, renowned for it’s beautiful architecture and is a milestone in the growth of western civilization, the birth of a new era [ (Chartres Cathedral, ND) Very quickly dozens of churches appeared using this style, it became prolific, which suggests that in some ways it was a reflection of the medieval world.
The gothic style in general was very innovative and was a strong depiction of the medieval ages. The structure was made to incorporate room for large stained glass windows on the outer walls; achieved by diverting the roof weight toward centre columns, which, in plan IEEE depicted the symbol of Christianity, the cross. Thus heading away from the usual cold dark interiors the churches would posses. The big rose windows are a huge part of the style and helped emphasize the height and structure of the buildings.
Pointed towers and slender spires surround the building giving it a very medieval characteristic and again adding the essential height factor. The structure, the decoration and of course the function reveals the understanding of the medieval middle ages [ (University, ND) This building is a representation of the medieval worldview as it was a time when here were huge variations of beliefs, at one end of the scale, rationalism, requiring logical or scientific proof for some to truly believe a statement.
On the other end of the scale, the extremists, total rejection of reason and solely relying on faith to get them through [ (Valorous, 2000)]. This wide range of beliefs tore people apart and gave them something to be separated by and argue about. The one thing that did not change was their belief in God. Churches were a place were everyone had common ground, the existence of God was certain, no science was needed to prove it, although mom felt the need to prove their beliefs rationally rather than going on blind faith of what has been said to them.
This giving the church a huge significance in the medieval world view as it was the central core to society, no matter how different the views of people were within the society, God remained the same, a higher power that indeed needed to be worshiped and noticed by all. Portfolio Task 4 – Cam McBride Option 2 Using the two readings below, explain what materials and technology were used in ancient Greek architectural design. The vast majority of materials used in ancient Greek architecture were based upon mingle strong and sturdy natural elements.
Structural elements such as columns were initially created from timbers, one of the easiest natural materials to gather and reform to a building material. Stone soon began to replace timber, mainly for its structural elements but also, its dependability seemed to suit the perception of their immortal gods that they all worship. This was entirely appropriate due to the fact the temples were being built as a representation of the gods (Hemingway, 2003). The switch to stone made a big difference to how the buildings looked.
As there was a retreat increase in weight, the columns and support beams had to be closer together, this gave it a more solid, heavy look. This also occurred in the roof pitch. Initially they used lighter roofing materials allowing for a steeper pitch, but the introduction and translation into stone meant they started using a range of terracotta tiles which added a tremendous amount of additional weight, decreasing this pitch vastly [ (Odyssey, Adventures in Archaeology, 2012) Obtaining the stone such as marble and limestone was the biggest task of creating an ancient Greek temple.
It was expensive and preparation time was extensive (Peck 2005). In summary I would suggest that it wasn’t the most practical building material in some cases, but it was the image it needed to portray, the architecture had to represent strength, power and above all immortality. Large masses of stone were indeed the key to this depiction. The technology used in ancient Greek architecture was hugely advanced by ingenious inventions that aided them in constructing bigger and better structures.
Some of the tools the Greeks invented are still used to this day, although they have been developed further, in reality they are the same concept and are used for the name tasks. For example the pulley systems used by their wooden cranes; this creation advanced them immensely, previously using ramps and sleds that took a huge amount of preparation and materials (Peck, 2005). The ancient Greeks, like today, would hire specific workmen to build wooden scaffolding around the workouts.
Scaffolding was essential in erecting statues, laying roofing tiles and hoisting stone. These systems became common practice and were notably developed to a stage were they were know for their precision and excellence in workmanship [ (Hemingway, 003) The tools used by early architects are still used on the building site today, squares, plum bobs, levels and hammers were all part of the technological growth they played such a huge part in.
The Greeks were leaders in the field of architecture, not only playing a massive role in the development of styles, systems and technology, but portraying the meaning and purpose of a building through the use of scale, materials and placement. All these elements are used today, but in some cases, the ancient Greeks used them more effectively. Works Cited Chartres Cathedral. (ND). The Cathedral of Chartres. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from Chartres Cathedral: http://www. Characteristically. Net/ Hemingway, C. (2003, October). Architecture in Ancient Greece.