There are several different types of nursing care delivery systems, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The most common types of nursing care delivery systems are staff model, primary care model, patient-centered medical home (PCMH), and nurse-managed health centers (NMHCs).
The staff model is the traditional model of care delivery in which nurses work under the supervision of a physician. In this model, nurses are responsible for providing direct patient care, as well as coordinating the care provided by other members of the healthcare team. This type of care delivery system can be very effective in ensuring that patients receive high-quality care. However, it can also be quite costly, as it requires a large number of nurses to staff the facility.
The primary care model is a more recent innovation in which nurses work as part of a team that includes primary care physicians, specialists, and other health professionals. In this model, nurses provide direct patient care, as well as coordinate the care provided by other members of the healthcare team. This type of care delivery system can be less expensive than the staff model, as it requires fewer nurses to staff the facility. However, it can also be less effective in ensuring that patients receive high-quality care.
Nursing is continuous and permanent for both the nurse and the patient. It does not end with the length of stay in the hospital, but continues throughout one’s life. The nurse is responsible for keeping the patient going, learning about him, and delivering care to him.
The impact of a nurse’s approach to this care on the patient’s stay in the hospital and whether any teaching will be effective or overlooked may make all the difference. This paper examines two popular methods of providing patient-centered care: Team Nursing and Patient-Centered Care.
What is Nursing? Nursing is defined as “a caring science that addresses human health needs, promotion and maintenance of health, prevention of illness and restoration to health” (American Nurses Association, 2015). Nursing is an art as much as it is a science.
Caring for patients is more than just giving them the correct medications and procedures; it includes making sure they are comfortable and relaxed, providing emotional support, and being there for them when they need you. A nurse is with a patient during their most vulnerable times and becomes a part of their life. It is not uncommon for nurses to stay in touch with their patients even after they have been discharged from the hospital.
Nursing care delivery systems are the different methods used to organize and deliver nursing care. Nursing care delivery systems are always changing and evolving as new research is conducted and new evidence is found. The two most common nursing care delivery systems are patient-centered care and team nursing.
Patient-Centered Care: Patient-centered care (PCC) is a system of care that is focused on the needs, preferences, and values of the patient. PCC is also known as person-centered care or individualized care. In PCC, the nurse works with the patient to develop a plan of care that meets the patient’s specific needs. The nurse also educates the patient about their condition and treatment options so that they can make informed decisions about their care. PCC has been shown to improve patient satisfaction, health outcomes, and nurse job satisfaction.
Care that puts the patient first is one of the four essential elements of good medicine (Frampton S. , Guastello, Brady, Hale, Smith, & Stone, 2011). Patient-centered care is simply defined as care in which hospital personnel collaborate with patients and their families to identify and meet all of a patient’s requirements and preferences while also supporting their professionals and personal goals. For each individual (Peraino, Robert A. MD, FACP), it is the best treatment (2008).
Patient-centered care should encompass all aspects of a patient’s experience, from pre-admission to aftercare. A team nursing model is defined as “a system in which small groups of nurses work together to assume responsibility for a group of patients and their families” (Kalisch, 2006). In this model, each nurse is responsible for a specific number of patients and works with the same patients throughout the shift.
The nurse is also responsible for providing continuity of care by communicating with the patient and family about changes in condition, medications, etc. This type of nursing care delivery system requires strong communication among the nursing staff as well as good organizational skills.
The primary care model is a model of health care delivery that is focused on providing preventive care and health education to patients in an effort to keep them healthy. This type of care is typically provided by a primary care physician or nurse practitioner. The primary care model is based on the premise that it is better to prevent disease than to treat it. This model of care has been shown to be more effective and less expensive than the traditional medical model of care, which is focused on treating disease.
The team-based care model is a type of primary care that is delivered by a team of health care professionals. This team may include a primary care physician, nurse practitioner, physician assistant, registered nurse, and other health care professionals. The team-based care model is designed to provide comprehensive and coordinated care to patients. This type of care has been shown to improve patient outcomes and decrease healthcare costs.
The case management model is a type of care delivery that is focused on coordinating the care of patients with complex medical needs. In this model, a case manager works with a team of health care professionals to develop a plan of care for each patient. The case manager is responsible for ensuring that the patient receives the necessary services and supports to meet their health care needs. This type of care has been shown to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs.
During the 1950s, team nursing care became more widespread. This was done to relieve the shortage of nurses and address issues with nursing in an attempt to do so. Team nursing divides personnel into teams. A team within this structure generally includes an RN (registered nurse), a LPN (licensed practical nurse), and a UAP (un licensed assistive person), among other things).) The team leader is in command and controls all of the services provided by members of the team.
The team leader also delegates tasks to the other team members. The main advantage of this model is that it evenly shares the workload between all those on the team and allows for better continuity of care, (Zewekh & Claborn, 2009). A disadvantage to this model is that it can create a feeling of impersonality among patients and their families if they are constantly seeing different faces each time they need assistance, (Zewekh & Claborn, 2009).
Case management nursing is a newer model of care delivery. It became popular in the 1980’s as a way to manage patient care costs while still providing high-quality care, (Wong, Cummings, & Hirschman, 2006). In this model, an RN is assigned to a group of patients and is responsible for coordinating all their care. The RN works with the patient and their family to develop a plan of care and then delegates tasks to other members of the healthcare team, (Wong, Cummings, & Hirschman, 2006).
The advantage of this model is that it allows for better continuity of care and communication between the RN and the patient. It also can lead to better health outcomes for patients, (Wong, Cummings, & Hirschman, 2006). A disadvantage of this model is that it can be time-consuming for the RN and may result in the RN feeling overloaded with work, (Wong, Cummings, & Hirschman, 2006).