Notes on American History
Frederick Jackson Turner was a historian who argued that the Frontier life promoted individualism, independence and social and political democracy. He said it made an important role in the creation of the American Society. 2. The population of buffalos started to decrease during the 1 9th century because of the Native American and American Ways of living. They hunted buffalos for trade and other purposes instead of food. 3. Lasts was a group of Indians who fought against IIS Soldiers and fought at Little Big Horn. The group was led by chiefs Rain-in-the-Pace, Sitting bull and crazy Hose. Reservation Policy was issued by the federal government that assigned tribes to a large section of land. Later the boundaries were reestablished which led to several arguments over land. 5. Daces Severalty Act was made to break up tribal organizations. It separated tribal lands into plots. Citizenship was given to those who stayed on that land for 25 Amos. 6. Wounded Knee: A massacre where many Native Americans were killed. Americans attacked them because they believed Native Americans were going to attack them. The Lasts fought here. 7. John Mir led the conservationist movement.
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He reassured Congress to create reserves or public lands protected from private interest cutting. 8. Prior Appropriation: A law that rewards water to the first person who obtains it from a source and has the right to the same amount of water as long as they want. 9. Merrill Land Grant Act: An act passed by Congress in July 1862 that awards proceeds for the sale of public land to the states for the establishment of colleges. 10. Joseph Glidden: A man who invented barbed wire in 1873. 11. Buffalo Bill: A successful show that popularized Wild West shows. It consisted of a rider, a fighter, and a hero of popular novels for children. 12.
Treaty of Greenville: A treaty that ensured peace and placed boundaries between the Indian and American lands. 13. Pawned: A group that resisted trade deals from white settlers. They were also nomadic Indians who followed buffalo herds. 14. Little Big Horn: A place where the Lasts fought. They killed many LOS troops near the Little Big 15. Ghost dance was a traditional Indian dance that brought Horn River. Peace to tribes. The dance brought calmness to them. 16. Timber and Stone Act was passed in 1878 to grants 170 acres to individuals to settle in the west. 7. Riparian rights gave the people who owned land along river banks rights.
This hurt the economic development because it prevented other people from accessing the water from those rivers. 18. Newlyweds Reclamation Act was developed in 1 902 which allowed the government to sell public land to people. 19. Open Range was a place where cattle could roam without any boundaries. The Development of the West Dates 1795: The Treaty of Greenville was created. Sass-1 sass: A series of the Indian Wars. 1865-1890: The time railroad construction boomed. 1873: Barbed wire was invented by Joseph Glidden. 876: Cutter’s troops destroyed at Little Big Horn. 1896: Rural Free Delivery made available.
The Development of the West Questions 1 . They both said that American men tamed the west, however Cod’s was more violent than Turner’s. Cod’s was the typical theory that battled it out, but Turner’s argued that the land characterized the men. 2. The life of Indians was changed because the settlers pushed them away from their homelands forcing them to adapt to the change in environment. The reservation system was not appreciated because they hated the boundary. 3. Their effort was somewhat successful because they managed to win a few tattles and were able to fight back but they were defeated at the battle at Wounded Knee. 4.
The significance of the Ghost Dance for the Indians was how their tradition and hate against the Americans helped unite the tribes to join forces and attack the Americans. It was significant to the US Government because it made them go to Wounded Knee without protection. 5. The Chinese did a big part in working on the railroads. 6. The railroads were important in the west because it provided fast transportation and jobs 7. The methods used by the US government to give confidence payment were and acts such as the Merrill Land Grant Act, Newlyweds Reclamation Act, etc. These ways promoted the West, thus leading people to settle there. . The government’s policy of the assimilation of the Native Americans was not good because they only thought about the benefits to the Americans instead of the Native Americans as well. They didn’t care if whether they agreed to their policy or not. If they didn’t agree to move to reservation camps, they were killed The Machine Age Terms 1 . Thomas Edison invented the light bulb, leading to more productivity at night such as work and leisure time. 2. Automobile Industry was When Henry Ford’s assembly line was a success, the industry tremendously increased. The workers’ time and the cost of making cars were reduced as well. 3.
Economies of Scale: Higher production at lowered costs led to bigger profits. The advance in technology also helped production speed. 4. Mass Production is rapid manufacturing of large numbers of identical products. Henry Ford perfected this and introduced assembly lines as well as the conveyor belt. 5. Holder v. Harvey of 1 896, the Supreme Court passed a law that regulated working hours for mines because too many hours would increase the chance of injuries. 6. Mueller v. Oregon of 1 908, the Supreme Court passed a law that limited women to ten hours of work. Women were banned from some jobs because they were considered unsuitable for them. . Knights of Labor were a union that welcomed workers, skilled or not. 8. American Federation of Labor was Created in 1 886, an alliance of national unions, led by Samuel Compeers. They wanted higher wages, shorter hours, etc. 9. Pullman Strike was when Workers from the Pullman palace Car Company went on strike over policies at the company. Pullman, however, protected profits and stock dividends by cutting wages. 10. Industrial Workers of the World Worked to unite all workers, even African Americans who were unskilled and unable to be in craft unions. 11. Corporations are companies that sold stock to its investors.
The stockholders would share their profits and by 1 900, 2/3 of all their goods in the US were made by corporate firms. 12. John D. Rockefeller was in control of the oil industry and eliminated competition by lowering oil prices. By 1 881 , his firm owned 90 percent of the oil industry. 13. Vertical Integration is to own every step of industry. Horizontal Integration is to combine former competitors into the same corporation. 4. Edward Bellary is an author who believed in competitive capitalism. Wanted to convince his readers that a principle of cooperation could take over competition and monopoly. 15.
Trust is an arrangement where an individual would manage the financial deals of a person unwilling to handle them. 16. Henry Ford introduced the assembly line and the conveyor belt, which led to the growth of the automobile industry. He paid workers a decent wage and they were happy about it. DuPont Family changed the chemical industry by manufacturing all types of things like GU manpower, fertilizers, and other chemical products. 18. Frederick Taylor: Introduced standardized labor, making everyone do the same thing to increase efficiency in jobs. 19. Triangle Shirtwaist Company: In 1 911 , this company had a tragic fire.
More than 100 workers killed, mostly women due to being in a locked room. 20. Locker. New York: In 1905, the Supreme Court voided a law that limited bakery workers to a 60 hour week because baking wasn’t a dangerous job. 21. Railroad Strikes: In 1877, railroad workers went on strike to protest their wage cuts. Rioters were enraged and destroyed railroad property, etc. 22. Homemaker Riot: More than 1 00,000 workers participated in a riot. Police tried to prevent this, but in 1886, police tried to break up a battle between unionists and nonunion strikebreakers. 3. Homestead Strike: In 1892, the affiliated amalgamated association of iron and steelworkers refused to accept pay cuts and decided to go on strike in Pennsylvania. The angry strikers attacked the guards hired to protect them. 24 Women’s Trade Union League: The first women’s organization that wanted to promote the interest of laboring women. This was founded in 1 903 and they wanted workplace protection legislation too. 25. Gail Borden: Someone who made a plan to preserve milk, thus leading to he availability of canned goods and condensed milk in the Sass. 26.
Pool: Arrangements where competing companies wanted to control the market by agreeing on the price of producing and sharing should be. 27. Andrew Carnegie: Used vertical integration to own the steel industry. He controlled every step of the industrial process. 28. Gospel of Wealth: Carnegie thought that they were guardians of their society’s wealth and had a duty to serve their community. 29. Sherman Anti-Trust Act: passed in 1890, this act voided trusts and people who still had trusts were put to jail. The Machine Age Dates 882 – Formation of Standard Oil Trust. sass – Industrialization, New innovation, and mass production happened. 1886 – Homemaker riot in Chicago. July 1 877 – Railroad strikes protest wage cuts. July 1 892 – Homestead steelworkers strike against Carnegie Steel Company. 1894 – Workers at Pullman Palace Car Company Strike. 1903 – Women’s Trade union League founded. The Machine Age Questions 1 . The second wave of industrialization began with the new technological advance. The light bulb by Edison, had allowed people to work later. The conveyor belt helped the second industrialization because it helped improve the working pace. 2.
The effects of the new inventions were great because it allowed people to work long during the nights the conveyor belt made work a lot quicker and helped work become more efficient. 3. Holder V Hardy was a case on cutting the hours of work for the miners due to treats of injuries. Locker V New York case dealt with bakery’ workers and how they didn’t have to change their working days because baking was not a dangerous job. Mueller V Oregon was the case that came to an agreement on whether or not moment. 4. The American Federation Of Labor wasn’t effective because it didn’t achieve the goals like higher wages, shorter hours and etc. Eye excluded the representation. 5. One strike that was led by industrial workers was the Homestead Strike, which happened due to the Steelworkers getting their wages cut. Another was the Pullman Strike. The Pullman Strike was a result from workers’ pays being reduced 25 to 40 percent. Pullman fought against this by closing down the factory. 6. Corporations are divided into stocks, later sold to investors interested in buying them. Trusts are when someone manages the financial means because you are unable to do so. Pools are when companies join together to discuss a particular price or cost n things that benefit all of them.
Holding companies own stock which can merge if WA need to. 7. The gospel of Wealth is a group led by Andrew Carnegie who believed that e and his people were guardians of society’s wealth and believed it was it responsible 8. The impact of Industrialization had on everything was so great. On the working class is more challenging deals with other corporate order. R For the wealthy class, it was another way to gain more money and become wealthier. Women and children were involved during this time because they were a part of this and the women led many movements. Ban Life Editorial I believe that political machines are scams and frauds! The Urban management only thinks about them and is interested in only themselves rather than helping others. They give themselves and followers gifts. While some may say that the things they are doing are a benefit to society, this is only because they are being bribed to say so. They are being given rewards like money or power to say good things about this corrupt system. The people in power and the political machines are just looking out for each other’s benefit. They don’t care about anything else but their own well being.
In other words, they will do anything for their benefit to help themselves like allowing such a fraud to even exist. I assure you that what they are doing is not benefiting anyone but themselves. The people helping them are doing so just to stay in power. I’m writing this to tell you that what they are doing is no good to society. Urban Life Terms 1. Dennis Carney is an Irish man who blamed the Chinese for unemployment. 2. Geary Act was created in 1892 to make all Chinese workers carry certificates of residence. 3. Mexicans isolated in barrios located far from European Settlements. 4.
African Americans are a group of people that were segregated and they could expand to other places that used to be owned by white settlers. 5. European Immigrants came from the west and northern parts of Europe before 1880. After 1880, they started coming from the east and southern part Of Europe to America. 6. Natives is native born immigrants who were blamed for crimes and unemployment. 7. Vaudeville: One of the most popular entertainments in America. It included jugglers, magicians, acrobats and more. 8. Joseph Pulitzer: An immigrant from Hungary who bought the New York World. He believed that newspapers should be dedicated to the people. . Machine Politics: Helped immigrants settle into American society. This provided the immigrants with jobs in exchange for their votes. 10. Chinese Exclusion Act: An act that made a restriction on Chinese immigration in 1882. It prevented the Chinese from becoming citizens in America. 1 1. Pong You Ting v. US: The Japanese were prevented from becoming citizens like the Chinese in the Chinese Exclusion Act. 12. Chinese group of people that were discriminated from through acts such as the Geary Act and the Chinese Exclusion Act. 13. Women led the Urban Reform Movement. They would work and some led movements during this time. 14.
Housing Reformers: New York passed this law for light, ventilation, and safety codes for tenement. This led to reduce in profits for landlords. 15. Tammany Hall is an organization that makes a public accomplishment and had a gathering of many political machines. 16. Civic Reformer is a reform that came from the industrial system’s emphasis on getting rid of inefficiency by choosing officials. The reformers also supported changes such as city manager. 17. City Beautiful Movement was organized by a male group, a movement led to improve the city by making it more beautiful. It resulted in the making of more buildings, parks, etc. . Settlement Reformers were middle class women that worked and lived with the poor to prevent tensions against the social classes. They became reform leaders and sponsored programs for better education, etc. 19. Birth of a Nation (1915) is a movie about the Civil War and Reconstruction that talked about prejudice through African Americans and white values. 20. George Eastman helped modernize the still camera. He made an advance in technology and helped preserve memories. 21. William Randolph Hearst bought the New York Journal in 1895, leading to an empire of newspapers. He was inspired by Pulitzer and adopted his techniques. . The most popular sport during time, 1845. Formalized by the Knickerbockers Club of New York. The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs gave the sport a stable business. Urban Life Questions 1 . The influx of immigrants causes tension between the white Americans and the other races. The Chinese and Japanese were discriminated against, along with the African Americans. They weren’t allowed to become citizens due to the Chinese exclusion act. 2. The Natives groups passed laws like Geary Act and the Chinese Exclusion Act to decrease immigration to the US in the late sass.
The Chinese exclusion act prevented Chinese immigrants from GA inning citizenship. This also applied to the Japanese. 3. The methods political machines used to build support in the late sass were through the use of immigrants. They helped them settle into their community by offering jobs and homes in exchange for their votes. 4. The movements addressed urban issues. The house reforms that set regulations and rules on property. The settlement reform made middle class women live with poorer people to ease tensions amongst the social classes. The city beautiful movement also contributed to the city by making it looks better. Urban life changed during this period by the many reform movements that occurred. Many rules and regulations were passed giving benefits and taking some away. To the people living in urban areas, they were granted more benefits. 6. African- Americans were incorporated into this new urban lifestyle by living in neighborhoods previously owned by white settlers. Gilded Age Politics Terms 1 . Pendleton Act of 1883 created a merit system of making appointments to government jobs on the basis of aptitude rather than who you know, or the spoil system. People were forced to take an exam before being hired to a overspent job. . Jim Crow Laws were state laws which created a racial caste system in the South. They included the laws which prevented blacks from voting and those which created segregated facilities. 3. Please V Ferguson (1896) ruled that a separate but equal facility based upon race is constitutional. 4. Ida B Wells was a journalist. She outraged by the lynching of blacks. She urged African Americans to protest the lynching and also called for a boycott of segregated street cars and white owned stores. 5. Farmers’ Alliances was a movement that focused on the cooperation between rammers.
They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. Didn’t work. 6. Populist Party was a party that represented the “common man It was created near the end of the sass. Goals included creating postal savings banks, enacting immigration restriction, setting a graduated income tax and limiting presidency. Views of the farmers of the West. 7. Bland-Allison Act was established in 1878. It authorized the purchase of 2-4 million dollars worth of silver and gave paper money instead. 8. Sherman Silver Purchase Act was signed in 1890. The treasury bought even argue amounts of silver and at inflated prices. . Monetary Policy inflamed even stronger emotions than tariffs did. It is about the issue of what the currency should be. 10. Eugene V Debs was an inspiring leader who rose in response to the governments quashing of the Pullman Strike and of the newly formed American Railway Union. He was the Union’s president he served six months in prison for converting to socialism. 11. National Woman Suffrage Association is lead by militants Elizabeth Caddy Stanton and Susan B Anthony. They advocated women’s rights in courts and workplaces as well as the ballot box. Fought on a National Level. 12.
American Woman Suffrage Association was led by former abolitionists Lucy Stone and Thomas Wentworth Higgins who focused more narrowly on suffrage. Worked to amend states. 13. In 1899, the Court applied the separate but equal doctrine to schools in Cummins V County Board of Education, legitimating school segregation until it was overturned by brown B board of Education in 1954. 14. With aid from Oliver Kelley, A clerk in the Department of Agriculture, Farmers in almost every state during the 1 sass and sass founded a network of local organizations called Granges. By 1875 the grange had 20000 branches and 1 million members.
Granges had constitutions, elected officers, and membership oaths. 15. Jacob S Coxes was a businessman from Mainsails, Ohio. He had a vision, to the aid debtors, that the government should issue 500 million of paper money. Make the interest low interest loans to local government. Loaned money was used for public works. 16. The agrarian reform movement known as Populism found political expression in Texas as the People’s party, which evolved from the Grange, the Greenback party, and the Farmers’ Alliance into the most successful of the third-party movements n state history. 17.
US V Reese curtailed fed protection of black civil rights. Court restricted congressional power to enforce ASK Act. 18. The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 is a United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly Its monopolistic practices. The Act required that railroad rates be “reasonable and just,” but did not empower the government to fix specific rates. 19. The Democratic and Republicans advocated similar policies during the latter part of the nineteenth century. The Democrats had to overcome the stigma of secession and Civil War to win elections. 20.
The Democratic and Republicans advocated similar policies during the latter part of the nineteenth century. As a result, the Republicans dominated the government for most of the period. Changes came at the end of the period for both parties as western progressives crashed the parties. Gilded Age Politics Dates 1883 -Pendleton Civil Service Act and Supreme court strikes down 1875 Civil Rights Act 1877 -Georgia passes poll tax. 1878 -Bland-Allison Act 1896 -McKinley Elected President. Please V Ferguson 1894 -Wilson-German Tariff passes. Coccyx’s army marches on Washington DC 1 899 -Cummins V County Board of Educations applies. 900 -Gold Standard Act. McKinley Reelected. 1890 -McKinley Tariff, Sherman Silver Purchase Act, Mississippi Plan, and NASA/SAWS formed. Sass – sass – More Active Presidencies. 1893 – 1897 – Major Economic Depression hits US Gilded Age Politics Questions 1 . One of the most prevalent ways of teaching obedience to authority was through the school systems. Irish parents in Boston for example were deprived Of their rights to have their kids taught in Catholic schools. Immigrant children who were either orphaned or destitute were often hipped off into the Midwest even when family members nearby were willing to take them in. . One way they limited suffrage to the African-Americans was by giving Literacy tests. These were difficult tests that the African Americans could not prepare for. This stopped them from succeeding. 3. The African Americans got together and formed a protest against discrimination. That was their resistance to Discrimination. 4. The populist movement of the 1 sass failed due to lack of financial, popular and governmental support 5. Whichever political party was elected, it had its influence over the form of currency. For example the Democrats were in favor of a silver based currency.
But not only money, other issues as well. Gilded Age Politics Diary Entry I am very upset that these Americans are brainwashing my children. I want a proper education for my children but I don’t want them forgetting about their traditions. If I send them to these local public schools, these Americans will teach them their ways. They teach kids that other traditions besides those of the American people are bad and inhuman. Think this is terrible. I wish there is something could do. But there is nothing I can do. I’m not even a citizen. Ray but they don’t allow me to get my citizenship.
We need a change in the school system. Traditions should not be mentioned when it comes to public education for our kids. Myself can’t pass this stupid American literacy test. They make the test to difficult on something as irrelevant to reading as the history of the United States. I thought it was a reading test? Why do I have to know the history of this brainwashing country? I can read and write fine but they don’t teach me about the history. This is one of the many reasons why I hate this country and am considering going back to home country.