History Chart

More people could work. Trade Union Movement: The bad conditions and low wages factory workers endured led to the rise of trade unions. Although for many years unions were illegal, those laws were ignored. Strikes could be effective if they were in a large enough scale so Robert Owen envisioned unions on a national level ( Grand National Consolidated Trade Union). The government did eventually intervene with their Factory Acts (England) from 1802-1819 and the ones in 1833 which limited the workday for 9-13 year olds to 8 hours and limited everyone else’s to 10 hours (10 Hour Act).

It also forbid employment to children under 9 and required all children to have a reading and math education. Also no boys under 10 and no women were allowed to work in mines. Horrible conditions: -Super long work days (up to 16 hours) -Only half hour lunch break for most workers and few had a dinner break at all. – Because there was a huge amount of people that needed Jobs wages were close to nothing and there was no set minimum wage. -Machinery and crowding in factories made them very hot and some had no windows. No Job security- managers could and threatened to) fire workers for any tiny small thing they did wrong (such as looking out the window or talking too much). -Many factories didn’t have bathrooms just holes off to the side= gross. -Factories were extremely dirty and dangerous- some workers lost limbs from working with the dangerous machinery. -The factory air was very polluted= lung infections. Cottage Workers Because of all the new machines to spin thread that made the process faster (Flying Shuttle, Watercraft, Spinning Mule), there was an abundance of thread for weavers to use= for a short time hand weavers were the highest paid Job.

Soon factories replaced the cottage system= cottage workers out of Jobs= angry people= violence. Ululated = people such as cottage workers who were out of Jobs because of industrialization. Threatened factory owners, saying they would destroy their machines if they didn’t get rid of them. Merchants & Factory Owners The people that had once been the middle class were able to rise in social status and wealth through the opening of new businesses (mainly factories) All the new inventions led to increased production led to increased profit= more money-?more comfortable way of living.

Took advantage of the fact that there were no government regulations and exploited people, having super low wages and bad conditions. Not all factories were successful, many failed. Had to borrow a lot of money from banks to start up a factory. Family (including children) Children could now make money and contribute to the household. Wages were super low for children and the children were easily taken advantage of/exploited by the factory owners. Because of their small size children had some of the most dangerous jobs such as going in between running machines to repair them or fitting in small unless in mines.

Before economy had been based on agriculture and the majority of society was rural and people were farmers. Families were very close-knit and worked on the farm together. However, now many women left the home to work and with men, women, and children all working long hours families were no longer as close and saw each other less. For the most part, they all were only home to sleep. This took a very bad toll on families. Children grew up mall- nourished and uneducated because they had to work. Many children were injured in their work and grew up crippled. Women

Women now had more opportunity to get Jobs= starts the idea that women’s Job isn’t only to stay at home. Men are no longer the only ones with the right to work. Women now had their own income separate from what their husband makes. Women could help support their family and contribute monetarily to the household. Trained women’s bodies to be stronger and get through long workdays and harsh conditions. Women’s wages were a lot lower than men’s. Women had to leave their children at home to work= families not as close as before. By law the money women made was really their husband or fathers money.

Harsh working conditions that were made worse and more dangerous by long hair and skirts. Many single women left their families to work in cities. General (I. E. Economic, Political, Standard of Living) The overall standard of living rose for people. More goods= cheaper goods= more people can afford them. Items such as sugar and tea that had before been considered luxury goods could now be bought by the majority of people. The middle class was able to drastically rise in status and wealth because of the success of factories and businesses. New technical/industrial schools opened to promote the Roth of industry.

Economy improved because more goods were being produced. Increased wealth and national income. Governments promoted industrialization because they believed it strengthened their country. Used things such as tariff protection and improving transportation to promote industrialization. Frederica List promotes the idea of Economic Nationalism in his book the National System of Political Economy in 1841. This said that the growth of modern industry is of most importance because it is the industry that increases peoples well being and relieving overly in the country.

Although more people worked and goods were cheaper, wages were so low that many people still struggled to afford the necessities of life. The growth of factories promoted the growth of cities and the standard of living in cities was so bad that it could be said it lowered from what it uses to be. Crowding and overpopulation= a shortage of goods. There was no standard sanitary regulations so all waste and trash was discarded in the streets= gross and spread of disease. The air was polluted because of factories and covered in soot..

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