Governments In Ancient Chinese History
Throughout history, ideals and morals have been adapted and revised based upon the Infrastructure established by previous generations. This trend also applies to government; In ancient Chinese history, governments were established through analyzing and improving upon previous empires so that their reigns could be more successful than the former generations. For example, the centralization of government utilized by the Gin dynasty is still the centerpiece of the People’s Republic of China.
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This also translated to the Tang dynasty, as they expanded upon he equal field system, an Ideal founded by the Chou dynasty, who ruled thousands of years before the Tang. Through selecting separate aspects of previous governments and beliefs, Tang Talking, the second emperor of the Tang dynasty, was able to formulate a governmental structure that allowed for an open and cosmopolitan society unique to any of the previous dynasties. One example of the usage of former governments by the Tang Dynasty was its legal code.
Similar to the legalist beliefs of the Gin dynasty, the Tang were very intuitive when It came to crime, specifically towards those who were repeat offenders against the government. These punishments would range from penal servitude to strangulation, depending on the severity of the crime. If one were to “[rob] by stealth resulting in no gain, the punishment [would be] fifty strokes of the light stick. When the stolen property [were to be] valued at up to a foot of silk, the punishment [would be] sixty strokes of the heavy stick. (Byre, 117). This is comparable to the sentences of the Gin legal code, as “convict laborers [who] break pottery vessels or iron or done tools… Should be beaten ten strokes for each cash of value” (Byre, 53). Another similarity between the CNN and Tang legal codes were the brutality of punishments towards those who would rob and embezzle. In cases of embezzlement in the Tang dynasty, “When the value of the goods [reached] thirty bolts of silk, the sentence [was] strangulation. (Byre, 117). In the Gin dynasty, “if fewer than five men were involved but what they robbed was worth more than 660 cash, they should be tattooed, their noses cut off, and made convict laborers. ” (Byre, 51). By applying the punishments of the SQL, the Tang dynasty were able to assert their governmental stronghold and maintain the tranquil culture that they had venerated. Another way Tang Tagging utilized previous administrations in his government was in his system of establishing relatives.
A major characteristic of the Tang dynasty was their ambivalence towards foreigners and their acceptance towards foreign influence; because the core of the Tang originated from the period of disunion, the dynasty needed to establish a new cultural Identity. Therefore, It was essential to evolve a method of establishing a strong government In not only Changed, the capital, but all lands of China. When advising the future heir in regards to establishing relatives, Tang Tagging stated that “the emperor should enfold[l] relatives to guard the outlying prefectures…
Both distant and close relations are supported and employed; encroachment and rebellion are [then] prevented. ” (Byre, 112). Talking’s empowering of family demonstrates his desire to maintain authority throughout all of his land. He then reinforces his claim by listing how previous established the Wee dynasty, being ignorant of past experience, he did not grant any titles to his descendants… He had no one within or without the capital to protect him. Rush, the throne was usurped and his dynasty was overthrown by someone of a different surname… He best way [to succeed] is to enfold[l] many relatives to even up their power and to have them regulate one another and share one another’s ups and downs. ” (Byre, 1 13). This argument clearly illustrates Tang Taxation desire to learn from previous mistakes; he was able to utilize the failures of previous overspent in order to create his new governmental system, a system in which all of China could be centralized yet still display equivalent strength throughout. Tang Tagging also took many ideas from Confucianism and implemented them into his government.
The Tang studied the expansion of Confucianism during the Han dynasty and realized how it could further develop a serene culture within the rang society. In regards to avoiding extravagance, Tagging stated that “the ruler cultivates his character through frugality and peacefulness. “(Byre, 114). This idea originated directly from Confucianism; when Gazing, a former government official, once asked Confucius if killing those without principles would help those with principles, Confucius responded with “Why employ killing?
If you want what is good, the people will be good. “(Byre, 21). Also, Confucian believed that war was useless, as “if Your Highness practices benevolent government, the common people will love their superiors and die for those in charge. ” (Byre, 23). Similarly, Tang Tagging stated that “a warlike country, however huge and safe it may be, will end up declining ND endangering its populace. “(Byre 1 15).
The similarities between Confucianism and the Tang administration exemplify how Tang Tagging utilized Confucianism in order to further develop his effective government. By selecting specific governmental structures and ideals of previous rulers and philosophers, Tang Tagging was able to create an environment full of rich ideals and newfound cultures unique to any previous dynasty in China. While he utilized a strict legal system that protected his followers, Tagging still encouraged academic and scholarly growth through establishing a tranquil and fertile society.
This diverse nature was a major characteristic of the Tang, as it developed an ambivalence towards foreigners and therefore a stream of new ideas in and out of the country. Rang Taxation’s study of the past allowed the Tang dynasty to become one of the longest lasting dynasties in China. The dynasty not only encouraged the cultivation of ideas and products but also established Tang Taxation popularity among the Chinese people, thus making him one of the most successful rulers in the history of Chinese dynasties.