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Good effects and bad effects leading sentence:


Tourists generally are the greatest consumers of resources, so this can lead to conflicts with both the environment and with the local people, whose lives are being altered. Most of these problems occur in both the developing world and the developed world, so tourism can cause the whole world to suffer, but some areas suffer worse than others. Tourism can give economic benefits, and even environmental benefits, when managed, such as through conservation of sites and infrastructure, but there are always problems. There is only one way to try to achieve a balance and that is through sustainable tourism. This tries to maintain all the attractive qualities of a site, including its environment, character and economic qualities. If this can be achieved, then the future looks bright for tourism.

Bad effects examples:

1.      Many countries with coral have found that tourists can destroy this, by both stealing of it for souvenirs and just touching it, which kills it. This has occurred in Kuta, Bali where it was found that the coral population was diminishing due to the impacts of tourism. Fossilised coral can be used for building purposes and so areas such as off the coast of Tanzania, have had serious problems with coral mining.

2.      Dynamite fishing has also been a problem in this area, as this is now illegal, however this is due to the huge ecological impact: almost all organisms within 15 metres of the blast are killed. Seaweed farming, it is thought, could lead to biodiversity loss through the creation of monoculture communities.

Show with appropriate examples how the rapid growth of tourism can cause serious problems of environ


Good effects:

1. Tourism can generate many benefits, such as employment and income, as well as infrastructure improvement. In some countries, tourism can be important as it may provide a way to maintain a level of economic activity sufficient to prevent migration of people from underdeveloped regions to more developed areas. This can be seen in Indonesia, where many people have migrated from the islands, such as Sumatra, whereas the development of tourism on Bali, has meant people have not migrated to Java and Jakarta.

What effects does Human Activity have on Coastal Landforms
Human activities add another layer of complexity to the natural processes of coastal lands and materials. These activities may have direct or indirect effects on our changing coastlines. They may effect sources of new sediment to the coast and the movement of sediment within the coastal environment.

Bad effects:

3. Sediment starvation caused by river and coastal management is one effect of human activities on the coast. The coasts lack new material so erode and move inland. For instance damming of the tributary rivers to the Mississippi River over the past 60 years has reduced the movement of sediment. Studies in recent years have demonstrated that the amount of sediment carried by the Mississippi has been cut in half, aggravating the deterioration of Louisiana’s wetlands.

4. Human leisure activities such as rambling, horseracing and using off road vehicles on sand dunes, compact the sand, destroying plant roots and animal burrows. This leaves the sand dunes more susceptible to erosion causing blowouts and disrupting the succession of vegetation in the area. This has been a problem at Studland Bay in Dorset on the south coast of England.


5. Growth in the use of jet-skis, wet bikes and water scooters, generically referred to as personal watercraft (PWC), has been spectacular. In Florida, significant numbers of manatees are struck by small vessels, including PWC, each year (OShea, 1995). The noise from PWC may also drive nesting birds away from breeding areas ( Cuthbert and Suman, 1995) P46,47. booooook.

6. Freshwater showers installed for tourist convenience on the shore are resulting in higher than normal levels of freshwater run-off, altering the composition of the near-shore salinity. Many now consider Hanauma to be nothing more than a sacrifice area- a location where the mass tourists can be channeled to concentrate their negative effects, thereby reducing the pressure on other bays and beaches on the island of Oahu.

P61, 62

Social culture effects:

Bad effects:

1.       tourism in the Caribbean blamed for changing the resident populations ethics and general outlook on life. A transition away from old traditional values to a western-style materialism is often cited as an example of this. P65—-boook

2.       the social- cultural impact is incresase in prostitution and crime. (Mathieson and Wal, 1982). In Antigua beach boys operate on island beaches looking for estern women in seaerch of local boyfriends. Payment for their services usually takes the form of meals out in restaurants, clothes and other material goods, as well as money (Pattullo, 1996) p66

3.       Tourism has created a demand for drugs, which are supplied by local dealers; and drug traffickers often use tourism to mask their activities (Johnston, 1990a). p66b

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