The Harlem Renaissance An Annotated Bibliography “The Harlem Renaissance. ” PBS, Public Broadcasting Service, 2002, http://www. pbs. org/wnet/jimcrow/ stories_events_harlem. html. Accessed 10 March 2017. Lasting from 1917 through 1935, the Harlem Renaissance was a period of artistic, cultural and social prosperity for the Black community during the post-World War I Era. The neighborhood of Harlem in New York City was considered the Artistic and Cultural Mecca during the period, and is where thousands of talented Black artists, musicians, poets and scholars fled to in search of home here they could properly express themselves. Many influential Black artists and figures got their start or were in their prime during this era. Notable examples include Langston Hughes, Arna Bontemps, and the legendary W. E. B Dubois. DuBois himself was at the height of his fame during these times, and many of his works and publications are responsible for making a huge impact on the Black Community, especially in the 1960’s Civil Rights Era.
Through his work, Mr. DuBois, like many others, encouraged other African-Americans to leave behind the Southern U. S and move to the North, which was regarded by many as the Land of Freedom. This source will allow me to introduce my topic by explaining a bit of the history behind the Harlem Renaissance and provide a foundation for the reader to understand more on the subject. This information also helps the reader understand that the Harlem Renaissance was more than just a cultural movement, but it was also a movement that empowered young African-Americans and strengthened them with a sense of racial pride.
“The Harlem Renaissance. ” Ushistory. org, Independence Hall Association, 2008, www. shistory. org/us/46e. asp. Accessed 10 Mar. 2017. The era itself is best defined as a sort of cultural celebration. After having endured centuries of slavery, African-Americans were liberated from the shackles put upon them, however their troubles were far from over. White supremacy and discrimination against African-Americans was still rampant throughout the South, and legally so. New legislation known as the Jim Crow laws were enacted as a way to preserve the racial hierarchy that existed in the South prior to the Civil War. The South was unluckily where the vast majority of African-
Americans lived, so starting in around the 1890’s, the Great Migration began. Lasting from about 1890 to 1970, 6 million African-Americans migrated from the rural war-torn Southern United States into the urbanized Northeast. The Northerners weren’t exactly welcoming to the migration, because although there were no laws permitting discrimination or segregation, a general dislike and mistrust of African-Americans still existed. Despite this, African-Americans of the North and those of the South soon began to connect through their shared experiences.
With this source, I can introduce the leading factors for the Harlem Renaissance. Including the history behind the movement will make my research flow much smoother and provide the reader with the necessary background information if they don’t know about the subject. Graham, Maryemma. “The New Negro Renaissance. ” The New Negro Renaissance, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, 2011, exhibitions. nypl. org/africanaage/essay- renaissance. html. Accessed 10 Mar. 2017. The Harlem Renaissance, as previously stated, was a boom in African- American culture through the mixing of Northern, Southern, and Caribbean cultures.
This boom was most prominently seen in literature. Most novels published by Black authors in the 1910’s all began drawing on common literary genres and tropes, highlighting British Romanticism, American experimentalism, and Black Folk culture. The literature of this time period also poses great questions on personal identity and the pressures that are brought about through societal issues such as social class, race, and gender. Short stories were also very popular within this time period. Great examples include Fry Street & Environs and The Living Is Easy by Georgia Douglas Johnson and
Doro consciousness and diversity and the general experiences of life as an African-American in the Northern United States. Perhaps West, respectively, provide an insider’s view of color the most famous art forms of the Harlem Renaissance besides literature is music. Famous musicians like Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong brought about the nationwide popularity of African-American Jazz music, which is widely regarded as the first genre of music that was uniquely American.
Jazz music not only made a great impact in the United States, ut through World War I, it spread to other countries, such as France, where it became and remains extremely popular today. With this source, I can show and explain the literary and musical feats of Black artists of this time period. By doing this, I can use this information to better explain and connect this to how this movement affects the lives of Americans today. Wintz, Cara D. “The Harlem Renaissance: What Was It, and Why Does It Matter? ” Humanities Texas, Humanities Texas, Feb. 2015, www. humanitiestexas. org/news/articles/harlem- renaissance- what-was-it-and-why-does-it-matter.
Accessed 10 Mar. 2017. Despite being a literature movement at its core, the Harlem Renaissance affected and inspired all African-American artists who lived in the period. The movement brought together many different types of people who were determined to create and appreciate a culture which represented them and their shared experiences. This didn’t mean that they necessarily had the same social, political or religious values. However it is through these core differences that such a diverse movement was able to be enjoyed. Despite the voice that the movement provided
African-American people of this era, it still managed to bring about much hostility from intellectuals of the era. Nevertheless, the Harlem Renaissance represents the very first time African- American literature and arts were taken seriously, and the first time their culture was able viewed and appreciated at a nationwide scale. With this source, I can describe the effects the Harlem Renaissance had on the people of this era.
I can also use this source to illustrate how this movement made an impact on the future generations to come. Tillman, Gregory Anthony. “Hoopla in Harlem! he Renaissance of African American Art and Culture: A Rhetorical Criticism of Artists as Social Activists during the 1920’s and 30’s; Engaging the Philosophical Discourse of Kenneth Burke. ” Florida State University, Florida State University Libraries, 31 Oct. 2005, diginole. lib. fsu. edu/islandora/ object/fsu:175840/datastream/PDF/view. Accessed 10 Mar. 2017. The early 1900’s was a time of great change for the American people.
Although the Harlem Renaissance fizzled out by the mid 1930’s, the works of this era made a change that lasts to this day. Writers such as W. E. B DuBois were highly egarded for how vocal he was in the community and his lack of complacency for the roles that society placed on him because of his color. His attitudes would kindle a sense of Black Pride, which would become an integral part of the Civil Rights Movement, which was on the horizon. Themes of racial identity, freedom and perseverance found in the literature, artwork, and drama of the era motivated and inspired African-Americans to demand more respect from their fellow men.
Although the Harlem Renaissance didn’t reach quite reach the social and political change that many people living in the era had hoped or, it set the stage for future change. Perhaps the greatest achievement of the Harlem Renaissance was the heavily influence it had on the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s. I plan on using this source to describe the impact that the Harlem Renaissance had on the Civil Rights Movement, which in turn, can also point back to present day America. By describing the effects it has had on our present day society, this source will allow me to drive home how important this movement truly was for this group of people, and how their movement brought about a change for all Americans.