New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick) is named after the British royal family of Brunswick-Lundeberg (the house of Hannover). It forms part of the three Maritime provinces in Canada. It is the only bilingual province (French and English) in the country. It is included as one of the four Atlantic provinces, of Canada. North of New Brunswick are the Province Quebec and Schaller Bay, on the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and Northumberland Strait, on the south east by Nova Scotia, on the south by the Bay of Funny, and on the west by the state of Maine.
The Isthmus of Connect inks the province to Nova Scotia. New Brunswick became part of the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, being one of the four original provinces. The province’s economy is based primarily on the utilization of its natural resources. Currently, forestry and mineral industries are still important revenue-earners for the province but services and manufacturing sectors are gaining dominance. The Province of New-Brunswick was formerly part of Nova- Scotia, which was the first European settlement on the Continent of North America.
The first grant of land was given by King JAMES the FIRST to Sir WILLIAM ALEXANDER, n 1621. The first settlers arrived in 1604 were emigrants from France with DE MONT, a French adventurer. It was named Acadia. The colonists changed from French to the English then French again, till it was finally ceded to the British at the peace of Utrecht in 1713. In 1760, some people from the County of Essex, in Massachusetts, obtained a grant of a Township of about twelve miles square, on the River Saint John, from the British Government.
These people surveyed and explored the place then established settlement in Managerially. In April, 1783, around three thousand persons, men, women, and children, sailed room New-York for the River Saint John. Many of them were passengers, but most were people who had Joined the British army, and were now sent to this Country to be disbanded and settled. In October, around twelve hundred more arrived from the same place. In 1785, the present limits of New-Brunswick were separated from Nova-Scotia, and a separate Charter of a Constitution was created to the Province, under Governor CARLETON.
Starting this period the Province slowly grew in Agriculture, Ship Building, and the exportation of Masts, Spars, . to Great-Britain, and Fish, Staves, Shingles, Hoop Poles, and sawed Lumber to the West-Indies. The received in exchange for their produce and products, materials such as coarse Woolens and other articles from England; and Rum, Sugar, Molasses, and other produce from the West-Indies. The climate at that period in New Brunswick was tar more severe than at present. The settlers frequently had to experiment with crops that would produce crops even in the harshest temperatures.
They also had to look for clothing under harsh conditions. Economy Since the earliest settlements, New Brunswick economy has been closely tied and reliant to its natural resources. Forestry products (including manufactured items) have been New Brunswick economic chief support throughout its history. Fishing and agriculture are no longer important economic activities as compared to in the past. A large deposit of base metal ore were discovered in the sass’s. This has caused the mineral production activities to surge in the area.
Along with these developments, service industries and specialized manufacturing also gained prominence. This has helped the province provide more Jobs to its constituents. Agriculture In the early 19th century, around 1816 – the principal grains, roots, and grasses ultimate in the Province include wheat, oats, corn, peas, beans and others. Wheat is sown from five pecks to two bushels per acre. The yields were around twelve to twenty-four bushels per acre. The land could sometimes produce more, when the soil is very rich and the season is favorable.
Rye is grown on inferior lands. The quantity of seeds and the amount of yields per acre were almost similar to wheat. Oats grew abundantly in New Brunswick and the yields were good. Two to three bushels per acre were planted to produce twenty to thirty bushels per acre. Barley is not cultivated that much, it would make a good substitute in winter seasons. Buckwheat produced large yields for similar quantity sown. It is often planted on inferior lands that were incapable of producing good crops of the other grains.
This crop was often sown later in the season; so that the oppressing summer heat may be past before the grain is formed in the ear. If there were few very hot days when the grain was in the milk, the crop would be destroyed. An early frost would also do similar damage. If it was not affected by too much heat or early frost, the result would be a good crop, yielding usually forty to sixty bushels to an acre. There were lid Buckwheat that would produce sure crops but the quality was inferior. Millet has lately been introduced into the Province too.
It seemed to do well on all kinds of lands but not much people were planting this crop. Indian Corn or Maize, grew well on the intervals, which were primarily made up rich, fertile alluvial soil. Corns were often planted in hills around four feet deep. Five grains was the normal quantity for a hill. Corns required light rich soil, old manure, and not seasons. I t these requirements were met, a g around twenty-five to forty bushels per acre. Crop would result usually Peas were also planted and could produce from ten to fifteen bushels to an acre.
Beans were cultivated in on light sandy lands, but were not usually the choice of crop for the farmers. Potato was considered the most valuable ground crop. This root was the most productive and was the surest substitutes for bread. Potatoes were the surest crop, and can easily adapt to new environments. The produce was usually from 150 to 200 bushels from an acre even greater. Potato was also used to improve new lands since planting it would require using the hoe or hack. Several kinds of Turnips were also ultimate in this Province; the best of which was the rata-bag, or Swedish turnip.
These crops were firmer and can be kept the year round. The Swedish turnip was sown early in June. The other roots planted were beets, carrots, parsnips, onions, radishes, and others. Most of which were primarily cultivated in gardens. There are a variety of cabbages, salads, cauliflowers, squashes and others were also cultivated in the gardens with great success. The principal grasses produced were white and red clover, timothy, Lucerne, brownout, & others. Good uplands could produce one and a half tons per acre, and he interval from two to three tons.
There are several species of wild grass, such as blue-joint which were found in meadows, in the woods, and along streams, and were feed to young stock. The vegetable productions were Wheat, Rye, Oats, Barley, Maize, Beans, Peas, Buckwheat and Flax, with a variety of Roots, Grasses, and Hormonal Plants. The fruits were Apples, Plums, Cherries, Currants, Gooseberries, Cranberries, Blue and Black Berries, Raspberries, Strawberries, and small Grapes, with some small wild fruits. Butter Nuts, Beech Nuts, and Hazel Nuts were found in different parts of the country in abundance. Animals
The domestic animals in this Province included the horses and oxen which were used in the lumber business, came from the Americans. The breed of horses was improved by stallions imported from England and other places. In Cumberland the inhabitants worked hard to improve their breed of horned cattle leading to superior dairy products. The sheep and swine were off good size and various breeds. In Cumberland, the main trade was lumber. Agriculture was not given due significance. To improve the agriculture a Society has been formed, and cattle exhibitions were established to encourage the rural economy of the Province.
The number to wild animals was dwindling such as the Moose or Elk, which were hunted for the skin for clothing. The other wild animals are Bears, Foxes, Wolves, Carbon, Sable, Loop-curvier, Peacocks, Raccoon, Mink, Ground and Red Squirrels, Weasels, Muskrats, Wild Cats, Hares and the Beaver. The domestic Fowls consisted of Turtles, Geese, Ducks, Hens, and other Poultry; and among the wild are, Partridges, Geese, Ducks, Pigeons, Owls, Crows, and Swans; with a variety of small Birds. Most of the rivers were abundant with Salmon, Shad, Bass, Suckers, and Herrings, Trout, Perch, Chub, Smelt, Eels, &c.
Sucks and Sturgeon. The Bays and Harbors were plentiful with Cod, Pollock, Haddock, &c. Mackerel. Mineral or Fossil Productions Mineral or fossil productions of the province were still in its infancy in the early 19th century. Most inhabitants were concerned with agriculture rather than excavating for minerals. Minerals cannot be obtained and manufactured without money. Mining required a number of things which the new country was ill-equipped to produce. Coals were abundant at the Grand Lake, and specimens were found in several other places.
Limestone in large quantities and good quality was found in different parts of he Province; particularly near the mouth of the river SST. John. The huge number of limestone was enough for the country and for export to Europe and America. Gypsum was also found up the Bay, near Cumberland, and Manganese at Quack. New Brunswick was abundant with different kinds of excellent Stone for building, and other purposes. Grindstones were manufactured for home use and exportation. Veins of Marble, of different species, have been discovered and small quantities had been manufactured.
Exports The trade of New-Brunswick may be comprised under the following heads: EXPORTS TO THE WEST-INDIES. Boards, shingles, fish, and small articles. The principal return for which is rum, sugar, molasses, &c. EXPORTS TO GREAT BRITAIN. Squared timber, masts, spars, oars, lothario, deals, furs, &c. Ship-building forms also a considerable branch of trade at present. The amount of imports in 1824 was five hundred and fourteen thousand five hundred and fifty-seven pounds sterling, and the exports in the same year five hundred and twenty-six thousand nine hundred d twenty-three, exclusive to exports trot the port to SST.
Andrews, which amounted to about one hundred thousand pounds, besides several vessels built at SST. Peters, and other places not in the above statement. The gross amount of the revenue collected at the different ports in the Province, in 1824 was forty-four thousand six hundred and seventy pounds two shillings and sixpence, New-Brunswick currency. Squared timber exports were as follows: In 1819 the quantity was 247,394 Tons. In 1822 the quantity was 266,450 ” In 1824 the quantity was 321,211 The quoted amount was the total from all the Ports in New-Brunswick.
The following statement is a sample statement of the exports and imports of every description in the year 1824. IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. PORT OF SAINT JOHN, NEW-BRUNSWICK. An account of the total number of Ships and Vessels that have entered inwards at this Port and the Out-Bays within the district thereof, in the year 1824, with their Tonnage, number of Men, and the quantity of Goods imported in the same Vessels, together with the value of said Goods in Sterling Money. ?Exclusive of Coasters. SAINT JOHN. 432 Men. Wheat and Rye Flour, bulb. 2,512 Coal, cauldrons 3,703 Bread, ditto 1,088 Oak and Locust Wood, M. Feet 62 Corn, bushels 37,917 Onions, Seeds, Apples, bulb. 3,016 Meal, barrels 3,448 staves, M. 45 Rice, cats. ,097 Shingles, M. 27 Beef and Pork, barrels 4,719 Iron and Copper, tons 2,154 Sheep, number 26 Hides, number 7,724 Horses, ditto 3 Mahogany, Lockwood, &c. tons 192 Peas and Beans, bushels 1,145 Bricks, M. 21 Wine, gallons 14,772 Stone Ware, pieces 22,113 Brandy and Gin, gallons 29,682 Cotton Wool, bales Rum, gallons 310,879 Slates, M. 95 Molasses, gallons 110,579 oats, bushels 9863 Coffee, cats. 48 Barley, bushels 1,452 Pimento, lbs. 9,742 Wheat, bushels 5,418 Sugar, cut. 2,988 Tallow, hogsheads 67 Salt, tons 4,673 Wood Hoops, number 2,400 134 Naval Stores, barrels 2,254 Packages of British Merchandise, ,334 including cotton, silk Tea, chests 1,415 and woolen Goods, Sail Cordage, coils 9,406 Cloth, Ironmongery, &c. 24,686 Tobacco, cats. The primary export products of this Province consist of timber. The pine was manufactured in often the simplest manner, and sold to the export market quickly. The process of manufacturing pine consists mainly of using the axe.
The preservation to the toreros became extremely imp the Province. Other Commercial Activities rattan to maintain in the prosperity o Other channels for commercial operations were encouraged to lessen the Province reliance on timber. One of these resources was the Fisheries. The Fisheries have been improved on remote parts of the coasts of British America, a feat which New Brunswick intended to duplicate. This industry was believed to be more staple and beneficial than manufacturing industry such as ship-building.
Historical Growth of the Maritime Economy in New Brunswick The mid-19th century, especially the sass and sass, has been considered as the “Golden Age” in the Maritime affecting the three main maritime provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Growth was strong during that period. The region boasted one of British North America’s most extensive manufacturing sectors. How the Maritime fell from being a centre of Canadian manufacturing to being an economic hinterland was central to understand the region’s economic history.
There were a number of factors contributing to this dilemma. In 1867 Nova Scotia and New Brunswick merged with the Canada’s in Confederation, with Prince Edward Island joining much later, after six years in 1873. Canada was formed only a year after free trade with the United States (in the form of the Reciprocity Agreement) had ended. In the sass John A. McDonald’s National Political implemented, creating a system of protective tariffs around the new nation. Throughout the period, New Brunswick saw a number of technological changes which affected both in the production and transportation of goods.
Decline of Maritime Industry The cause of economic decline in the Maritime is a source of debate and controversy among historians, economists, and geographers. The two warring opinions can be classified into the “structuralisms,” who believe that poor policy decisions were the reasons, and the others, who think that unavoidable technological ND geographical factors caused the decline. The maritime “Golden Age” began to fade in the mid-nineteenth century and was over by 1870, before Confederation or the National Policy could create an impact.
The decline in Golden Age obviously affected New Brunswick which was then mainly dependent on the maritime industry. One of the most important reasons that contributed to the decline was the technological changes introduced in the sass. When railways were introduced to the region, decline in wooden ships was noticed as faster and newer steel steam ships were made. This had hurt the Maritime. Present Economy in New Brunswick New Brunswick: Economy The economy to New Brunswick NAS evolved since the early days in its history when people’s livelihoods were based on farming, fishing, forestry, and mining.
As a modern society, most of New Brunswick economic output is now derived from the service sector. New Brunswick has also abundant natural resources. Forests occupy 85 percent of the land mass; and wood and wood products are vital to the economy. Fishing and agriculture are also very important. New Brunswick is self-sufficient when it comes to forage, milk and poultry. New Brunswick mines silver, bismuth, cadmium, coal, copper, natural gas, gold, oil, lead, potash, peat, tungsten, silica, salt and zinc.
Important manufacturing industries include food and beverages, followed by pulp and paper, sawmills, manufacturers of furniture and other wood-based industries, metal processing, transportation equipment and processing of non-metallic ores and primary metals. Agriculture Food production and processing industries of New Brunswick are now employing around 17,000 people, mostly in rural communities. The food and beverage shipments amounted to $2 billion in 2005. There are 3,034 farms with 100 processing plants to produce $1. 13 billion worth of agro-food and beverage products in 2005 .
It boasts of a 265 percent processing rate, one of the highest levels of value-added processing in Canada . Potatoes, dairy products, eggs and poultry comprised of more than 60 per cent of New Brunswick ‘s total farm income of $427 million in 2005. Salmon aquaculture industry in the Bay of Funny combined with growing expertise in the culture of mollusks, sturgeon and other aquatic species preserves New Brunswick ‘s status as the aquaculture leader in Atlantic Canada. This industry is worth approximately $1 million annually in the early sass.
Currently, the provincial salmon industry provides an annual sales of $270 million in processed and unprocessed products. New Brunswick also has a well- established shellfish industry, producing mussels and oysters on the eastern coast which provided more than 5 ,OHO direct and indirect Jobs. Forestry About 85 per cent of New Brunswick land base, or 6. 1 million hectares, is productive forest. The forestry industry is an important part of the provincial economy, directly employing about 17,000 people and additional 6,000 indirect employees.
The total labor income generated from this industry is $1. 1 billion annually, the forestry sector directly contributes $1. 7 billion to the New Brunswick economy. The industry harvested more than 4. 8 million cubic meters of wood (both softwood and hardwood) from Crown lands in 2004, with almost $57 million was paid in royalties for wood cut on Crown lands. The Government of New Brunswick recognizes need of preserving a sample of the province’s natural ecosystems and protecting a sample of the biological diversity of native plants, animals, waterways, forests, and wetlands.
In 2003, more than 146,400 stares of land and water were placed in 30 protected natural areas to ensure the protection to the animals, plants, toreros, lakes, rivers and streams provincial ecosystem. Fisheries that make up our New Brunswick has 2,700 fishing vessels and annual landings worth nearly $205 million in 2005 generating employment for around 7,000 fishermen and 8,000 plant workers. New Brunswick is the fourth largest exporter of fish and seafood products in Canada exporting nearly 100,000 tones of fish and seafood in 2005 worth $832 million.
Mining The last three years, the value of mineral production is pegged at $million to $ 72 million. The industry provides Jobs to more than 3,150 people. The minerals and commodities sold include metals (antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, gold, lead, silver and zinc); non metals (marl, peat moss, potash, silica, salt and sulfur); fuels (oil, natural gas and coal); and structural materials (lime, sand and gravel, stone). Exploration expenditures in New Brunswick for 2005 amounted to $10. 5 million for metallic minerals and $3. Million for potash from $8 million expenses on mineral exploration in 2004. Knowledge New Brunswick has broadband access in 100 per cent of its schools and institutions ND more than 90 per cent of homes and businesses. The Information and Communications Technology (ACT) sector accounts for the second-largest sector in the province with more than 700 innovative new economy companies employing over 30,000 people and generating revenues of over $2. 1 billion annually. Tourism Tourism is flourishing and vibrant in the province.
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