1) Dr. Zamulko’s lecture on bone’s health revealed few bone problems that humans may experience as they advance in age (Zamulko, 2015). The first problem is osteoporosis. This condition is described by Dr. Zamulko (2015) as loss of bone density. Osteoporosis can be primary or secondary. Primary osteoporosis is a disease that develops as the individual ages. Secondary osteoporosis is related to an on other condition that places the individual at high risk of developing osteoporosis (Zamulko, 2015).
These conditions could be linked to kidney function, liver function, calcium levels, thyroid and parathyroid problems, and phosphorus problems (Zamulko, 2015). The second problem related to bone health is osteopenia. Osteopenia is described by Dr. Zamulko (2015) as thinning of the bone. She further explained that osteopenia is a step leading to a diagnosis of osteoporosis. According to Dr. Zamulko (2015), osteopenia should alert patients to take precautionary measures to slow the progress of osteopenia in order to avoid developing osteoporosis (Zamulko, 2015).
The third problem that is related to bone health is cancer. There are types of cancers that affect the bone directly, while other types of cancers are a resulted from metastasis (Zamulko, 2015). Multiple Myeloma is a cancer of the bone marrow which may lead to osteoporosis. Most other cancers that are not originated in the bone have the potential to metastasize to the bone (Zamulko, 2015). Moreover, cancer treatment can also affect bone health as chemotherapy, radiation, and steroid therapy may weaken the bone and lead to bone loss, osteopenia, or osteoporosis (Zamulko, 2015).
Another problem related to bone health that was not explained by Dr. Zamulko is Osteoarthritis which is a form of arthritis that affects the joints at the end of the bone ad could affect any joint in the human boy (MAYO CLINIC, 2014). However, osteoarthritis commonly affects joints in the knees, hip, hands, and spine. This disease is incurable and can worsen gradually to debilitate the affected individual (MAYO CLINIC, 2014). Osteoarthritis can cause severe pain, joint stiffness, loss of flexibility, and a grating sensation (MAYO CLINIC, 2014).
The affected person may develop bits of bones around the affected joint that feel like hard lumps. This disease can worsen to the point that the affected individual becomes wheel chair or bed bond (MAYO CLINIC, 2014). As nurses, we could teach our patients how to prevent osteoporosis or slow the rate of bone loss. Therefore, we should teach our patients to consume an adequate amount of calcium. An average person requires about 1000 milligrams of calcium per day (MAYO CLINIC, 2014). This amount increases to 1200 milligrams for women over the age of 50 and men over the age of 70.
We should teach our patients about foods high in calcium (MAYO CLINIC, 2014). Calcium is abundant in dairy products, dark green leafy vegetables, salmon, soy products, and calcium fortified cereals and orange juice. We should instruct our patients to take a calcium supplement if they cannot consume enough calcium in their diet (MAYO CLINIC, 2014). However, we should warn our patient about consuming too much calcium as well. We should also teach our patients about the importance of vitamin D to calcium absorption. Many people can get adequate amounts of vitamin D from sun exposure (MAYO CLINIC, 2014).
However, for those with less sun exposure, we should instruct them to consume a vitamin D supplement. Lastly, part of the teaching plan should include exercise. Exercise is beneficial to healthy bones and can help prevent or slow bone loss. We should teach our patients to combine strength training exercises and weight bearing exercises (MAYO CLINIC, 2014). 2) The article titled, Primary Lymphoma of Bone in Adult Patients discussed primary lymphoma of the bone and its classifications (Jawad, Schneiderbauer, Min, Cheung, Koniaris, & Scully, 2010).
The authors of this article used a large cohort of population from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and analyzed the population affected by this disease in the United States (Juwad et al. , 2010). The sample included fifteen hundred adult patients affected by primary lymphoma of the bone (PLB). The participants were selected from a SEER database using a specific criterion.
Moreover, the 5 year survival rate was 58% and the 10 year survival rate was 45% (Juwad et al. 2010). The study identified treatment based on two types of lymphomas of the bone, localized and systemic. The prognosis remains poor for all types of lymphomas of the bone (Juwad et al. , 2010). Localized lymphoma can be treated effectively with radiation therapy. A multivariate analysis revealed that younger age and localized disease predicted survival independently. The analysis of the cohort revealed that only localized disease and age were identifiable prognostic predictors (Juwad et al. , 2010).
The article describes the diagnosis of Primary Lymphoma of the Bone in Adults. When a patient who is affected by this ailment asks about information, he or she may want to know the nature of this cancer, life expectancy, and treatment modalities. Therefore, I would hand my patients written material that explains the nature of this disease. Moreover, I would explain to them how this disease would affect the body. The article could be used as a reference for a teaching plan as it provides valuable information about primary lymphoma of the bone (Juwad et al. , 2010).
I will tell my patient that this type of cancer is a rare infiltrate in the bone that may or may not metastasize to other parts of the body (Juwad et al. , 2010). It is also important to educate my patients about the relation between age, local classification of this cancer, and survival rate. Younger patients with localized lymphoma of the bone have a longer survival rate which makes age an important predictor of survival (Juwad et al. , 2010). I would also include in the education that the survival rate for 5-year to 10-year is between 58% and 45% (Juwad et al. 2010). 3)
According to Ellen Ullman, an effective lesson plan should involve the learners, get them thinking, look back at their knowledge and ask questions, and acquire new skills. Ullman (2011) believes that an effective lesson plan is comprised of three essential components: “the objective, the body, and a reflection. ” As a first step, an objective needs to be determined (Ullman, 2011). The objective delineates the purpose behind the teaching session. It determines the end results that the learner and the teachers would like to reach.
Once an objective is determined, it is time to start working on the body of the teaching session (Ullman, 2011). The body constitutes the content and the material on which the teaching session will be constructed. The body should include open ended questions because it allows the teacher to stimulate the learners thinking and solicits his or her participation (Ullman, 2011). The last component of a teaching and learning plan is a reflection time. In here, the teacher goes back and attempts to evaluate the extent of the teaching session and how much information the learner has retained.
This could be achieved either through answering open ended questions or through demonstrations (Ullman, 2011). 4) The article that I have found discusses the importance of an international practicum for nursing students. The article explains that the world is heading toward a globalization of health. Therefore, healthcare providers including nurses should possess skills that could be applied around the world. The article explains that currently, each practicum across the word has different leaning objectives. Therefore, nursing programs in the U.
S are different than their counterparts in countries, such as Australia, Thailand, and Vietnam (Geale, Beament, Gibson, Fowler, Baker, & Smith, 2015). One concept mentioned in the article is Globalization of nursing education. This means that nursing programs across the world should unite under one teaching practicum with similar learning objectives to create nursing graduates with “desired graduate attributes,” worldwide (Geale et al. , 2015). These attribute are determined and agreed upon by accredited universities and licensing boards globally. Therefore, nursing programs could create nurses who can be applied internationally.
This may very well help address the shortage of nurses seen in some countries around the world (Geale et al. , 2015). Another concept mentioned in the article and which relates to learning objectives is critical reflective practice (Geale et al. , 2015). In a nursing context, this means seeking a peer’s feedback and discussing personal feeling and assumption with another colleague in order to achieve some sort of peer review. These reflections, once they are collected and studied, may provide an idea about shared themes, learning outcomes, and graduate attributes (Geale et al. , 2015).