Africa chapter 20 • Factories: forts and trading posts with resident merchants. • El Mina (1482): Most important factory in the heart of gold-producing region of the forest zone. • Nzigna Mvemba (r. 1507-1543): Ruler of Kongo. With help of missionaries brought the whole kingdom to Christianity. • Luanda: Permanent settlement of the Portuguese established in the south of the Kongo in the 1570s. Basis for Portuguese colony of Angola. • Royal African Company: Charted in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British Merchant; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia. Indies Piece: Term used within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult slave male. • Triangular trade: Commerce linking Africa, the New World colonies, and Europe; slaves carried to America for sugar and tobacco transported to Europe. • Asante Empire: Established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko clan; many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650. Osei Tutu (1675-1717): Member of Oyoko clan of Akan peoples in Gold Coast region of Africa; responsible for creating unified Asante Empire in 1701; utilized Western firearms. • Dahomey: Kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; under King Agaja expanded to control coastline and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted Western firearms and goods in return for African Slaves. • Great Trek: Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal. Mfecane: Wars of 19th century in southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka; revolutionized political organization of southern Africa. • Swazi: New African state formed on model of Zulu chiefdom; survived mfecane. • Lesotho: Southern African state that survived mfecane; not based on Zulu model; less emphasis on military organization, less authoritarian government. • Middle Passage: Slave voyage from Africa to the Americas (16th-18th century); generally a traumatic experience for black slaves, although it failed to strip Africans of their cultures. Saltwater Slaves: Slaves transported from Africa, almost invariably black. • Creole Slaves: American-born descendants of saltwater slaves; result of sexual exploitation of slave women or process of miscegenation. • Obeah: African religious ideas and practices in the English and French Caribbean islands. • Candomble: African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people. • Vodun: African ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti. Palmares: Kingdom of runaway slaves with a population of 8000 to 10,000 people; located in Brazil during the 17th century; leadership was Angolan. • Suriname: Formerly a Dutch plantation colony on the coast of South America; location of runaway slaves kingdom in 18th century; able to retain independence despite attempts to crush guerrilla resistance. • William Wilberforce: British statesmen and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.