The primary economic, social, diplomatic, and political challenges that confront need Americans during the 1 940519605 cannot be attributed to one single underlying Eng factor or political party, but rather several different factors and political parties. For ins dance, liberalism cannot be blamed for all issues during this period since McCarthy, a Republic n, had further perpetuated the already prominent fear of communism in society. Most of the sees issues originated with the Cold War consensus and general fear in communism during Eng this period.
The unstable diplomacy between the United States and Soviet Union and the tots of the Cold War began with mutual distrust and fear between the United States and Soviet Union. Truman viewed all steps taken by Stalin as a threat to democracy. Stall in made it his primary focus to secure his borders and maintain his sphere of influence in E astern Europe. The democratic ideas of the United States and the communist ideas of the So Viet Union were completely opposed, and “each step taken by one side to enhance its security appeared an act of provocation to the other. L Trauma’s policy with the Soviet Union was not favored by many Americans, eve liberals of his own party. The Secretary of Commerce Henry Wallace warned t hat the U. S. Must take into account “Russian history… Because it is the setting in which Russ Asians see all actions and policies of the rest of the world,” that all actions of defense taken by the US “seem to have an aggressive intent,” and “after twenties years of isolation a ND after having achieved the status of a major power, Russia believes that she is entitled to re cognition of her new status. 2 Steven M. Gallon, The American Paradox: A History of the United States since 1945, 2nd deed. (Boston, MA: Houghton Muffling Company, 2007), 11 13. American Social History Project / Center for Media and Learning and Roy Rosenstein Center for History and N Media, ‘#achieving an Atmosphere of Mutual Trust and Confidence”: Henry A. Wallace Offers an Alternative to Cold War Containment,” American Social History Productions, accessed March 15, 2014, http://housemasters. Gum. Du/credits. HTML. George Keenan, Soviet specialist in the U. S. Embassy, had had also warned the United States about the Soviets’ outlook, stating it as “the product of ideology and circumstances. “3 This refers to the ideology that had been passed down through the cascades, and the way the Soviet Union had practiced its power in the last three e decades. Keenan recommended “cautious, persistent pressure toward the disruption a ND weakening Of all rival influence and rival power. “4 Using cautious counterattacks against Soviet aggression created the policy of containment and the idea that America could be an ease retie force in international affairs.
America’s assertiveness led to its involvement in the Korean War. After Genre Douglas MacArthur miscalculated that the Chinese would not intervene with t he war, Truman hoped the “Communist plan of conquest can be stopped without a general w ND sought after a more peaceful solution than Macarthur suggestion of attacking Chin a and risking the start of another world war. When Truman relieved MacArthur of his conman d, the public was angry and Republican leaders threatened to impeach Truman. However, the war continued the expansion of public power and intensified suspicions of communism at h mom. The idea of anticommunism originated even before WI in American unions. Richard Frankincense, director of the aviation division of the united Automat ill Workers (AAU), blamed an unauthorized strike on the “vicious maneuvering of the Co monist Party. “7 During the convention for the JAW in 1939 Walter Rather, proponent of anti communism, 3 Letter by George F. Keenan, “The Sources of Soviet Conduct,” n. D. , in Echoes of the Future: The Voices of America since 1 945, deed. Gerald Carpenter and Donald F. Peters (Lido Beach, NY: White ere Publications, 1994), 4. 4 Ibid. , 9. Harry S. Truman, “Radio Report to the American People on Korea and on U. S. Policy in the Far East,” speech presented in White House, Washington, District of Columbia, April 11, 1951 , in Echoes of the Future: The Voices of America since 1945, deed. Gerald Carpenter and Donald F. Peters (Lido Beach, N Y: Whittier Publications, 1994), 53. 6 Gallon, The American Paradox: A History, 5357. 7 Special to The New York Times, “Text Of Frankincense’s Declaration on Aviate on Strike,” The New York Times (New York, NY), June 8, 1941, accessed March 7, 2014, http://search. Prosiest. Com. Explore. Agrarian. Du/ deceive/1060591 nor the Communist contenders gained control Of the LAX. In response to pr assure from the AntiCommunist Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), R. J. Thomas, sup retorted by the more conservative liberals, was elected. However the CIO supported Rather, appointing him director of the AAU General Motors Department and disallowing Communist s access to top union positions. Router’s liberal caucus utilized the growing Red Scare, make Eng decisions within the union that were considered valid as opposed to those of antifoam Unisom to advance within the JAW.
His purging of communists ultimately narrowed polio tics and isolated communists within the JAW. 8 bribers were not the only people to use anticommunism for their benefit. W Whitaker Chambers, an editor at Time magazine accused Alger Hiss and other former g overspent officials of being affiliated with communists. His was found guilty for perjury and sentenced five years in jail. “By attacking him, [Republicans] hoped to undermine faith in the Democratic Party and remove some of the luster from Roosevelt memory. “9 Similarly, Senator Joseph McCarthy had made accusations that communist spies had infiltrated the gob ornament. Senator McCarthy allegations promoted him to a position of political power that made opposition to his actions dangerous; McCarthy could easily make those gains t him the target of his next inquiry and in the process ruin political careers. “l O McCarthy, despite his accusations, was covered on television as a protagonist of AntiCommunism, w which shows how influential television was in the fifties. 1 1 In the 1 sass television had made a tremendous impact in the culture of Aimer IAC and helped shape the Cold War consensus.
Religious preachers used this opportune unity to 8 Charles Williams, “Americanism and Anticommunism: The JAW and Repress eve Liberalism before the Red Scare,” Labor History, 0023656X Seer. , 53, no. 4 (November 201 2): 488489, ace seed March 6, 2014, DOI:10. 1080/0023656X. 2012. 731771. 9 Gallon, The American Paradox: A History, 58. 0 Ibid. , 6465. 11 Religion, Culture,and the Cold War: Bishop Fulton J. Sheen and America’s Anti Communist Crusade of the asses, OOH 82370 seer. , 71, no. 2 (summer 2009): 218, accessed March 6, 2014, DO: 10. 1 1 1 1/j. 15406563. 2009. 00235. X. Broadcast their own television shows.
One of the first clergymen to utilize tell vision was Most Reverend Futon J. Sheen, already made famous by his bestselling books and radio program. In his show Life is Worth Living, he emphasized the conflict between the United States and Soviet Union as a battle of good versus evil, encouraging his audio CE to “say an extra rosary a day for the conversion of the Russian people. ” 12 In addition to Sheen, Billy Graham, Norman Vincent Pearl, and Reinhold Nibbler had all captured Name Erica’s attention through television shows, reinforcing American fears of Communism on a erg alular basis. 3 Television had also made an impact on the structure of American families in t he asses. Shows such as Leave it to Beaver portrayed an American family living n the suburbs. They would have issues that would be solved by the father figure, the mother would act as the typical housewife, and the children would be innocent, inquisitive, and often g tit Eng into trouble. The suburban family was seen as the American Dream, and offered a sense of security during the Cold War. During the asses, science was eradicating disease seers people were paid more, and spending increased on advertising. The family was on t he front line of an existential conflict between communism and capitalism. On the communism t side, the propagandists said, were collectivism, atheism and poverty. On the capitalist s did was cleanliness, freedom of religion and a degree of material comfort unparalleled d in IIS history. ” 14 This consumer society helped increase fear in communism. After VIM, soldiers came home and there was a shortage in houses. America families moved to the suburbs to provide space for their growing families.
The e consumer society encouraged Americans to buy on credit rather than save. Advertising r assured consumers that they deserved these material goods for their years Of hard w Ark and sacrifice. 12 “Sheen Asks Prayers to Win Communists,” New York Times (New York, NY), March 24, 1947, Books, accessed March 8, 2014, http:// search. Prosiest. Com. Explore. Niagara. deed u/ 13 Religion, Culture,and the Cold, 219222. 14 Tim Stately, “The Changing Face of the American Family,” History Today, 001 82753 seer. , 62, no. 11 (November 201 2): 1112, accessed March 6, 2014, OBSCENE (83883085. . The increase in new highways and number of automobiles narrowed the gap between communities which contributed to America’s universal culture as did television n. Increased transportation resulted in the building Of fasted restaurants and motels, as well as new models of cars being sold every year. With the increase in wages and spending g, teenagers became a subculture. Public schools segregated young people with other pep el of the same age and resulted in a consumer market targeting teens. 15 Not everyone was fortunate enough to move to the spacious suburbs.
African Americans that had been lured by war defenestrated jobs during WI had migrated to cities. As they and other minorities moved to the cities for work, white middle class Americans were moving to the suburbs to raise their growing families. Suburbs ban communities often refused to sell homes to African Americans. Urban renewal projects fur there escalated issues. Densely populated neighborhoods were demolished to place highway s connecting the suburbs and cities. This displaced hundreds of thousands of poor minority IIS. 6 With new products and the rise of the consumer society, women were encounter aged to take the homemaker role to provide for their husbands and families. “If ever a nation needed comfort food, it was the United States in the asses. Weary from the strain Of wartime separations, economy, and anxieties, and reeling from the new knowledge the at the U. S. Possessed a weapon with unimaginable capabilities for destruction, American s turned to abundant, rich food. ” 17 During the asses, processed and packaged foods were significantly increasing in use.
Companies that produced these convenience products Ben fitted from the Cold War culture, and urged women to be homemakers. In many cookbooks, nearly all recipes required adding extra ingredients to processed food.