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Abortion Seminar Notes

What is abortion? An abortion is a deliberate act to terminate a pregnancy. This is also known as a termination, depending on how far gone the woman is, the pregnancy is ended either by medication or by having a surgical procedure. 2nd slide Why an abortion may be needed? There are many reasons a woman may consider an abortion. As the abortion act (1967) provides that as long as a pregnancy has not exceeded Its 24th week a termination may be carried out if continuing the pregnancy will; Would involve greater risk to mothers life

Would involve a greater risk to the mothers physical or mental wellbeing Would involve a greater risk of mental or physical wellbeing of the mothers existing children Or If the child Is born they would have a serious physical or mental disability 3rd slide Types of abortion Early medical abortion (up to nine weeks of pregnancy) An early medical abortion involves taking two different medicines 48 hours apart. The effect of the medication will be similar to an early natural miscarriage. After your initial vials to see the doctor, you will have two more appointments on different days.

On your first visit you will be given an abortion pill called omnipresent. Which blocks the hormone that makes the lining of the womb suitable for the fertilized egg. After taking the first pill, you will be able to go home and continue your normal everyday activities. Very little will happen while you are waiting for the second part of the treatment. A few women will have mild cramps and a little bleeding, but most will not. If you have heavier bleeding or significant pain, you should contact the hospital or clank.

If It Is out-of-hours, you should go to your nearest walk-Len centre or local capital’s accident and emergency (A) department. Two days later, on your second visit to the hospital or clinic, you will be given the second medicine, prostaglandin. Within 4-6 hours of taking prostaglandin, your womb lining will break down and be lost, along with the embryo, through bleeding from your vagina. This part of the process can be painful, but you can take a painkiller. Medicines used during an early medical abortion may make you sick and you may have diarrhea.

In some areas of the UK, the second dose of medication Is administered on an outpatient basis and he abortion can be managed at your home. This will be discussed with you if that is offered by the clinic or hospital. Vacuum aspiration or suction termination (from 7-15 weeks of pregnancy) Vacuum aspiration, or suction termination, is a procedure that uses gentle suction to remove the fetus from the womb. The procedure usually takes 5-10 minutes and can be carried out under a local anesthetic (where the area Is numbed) or general anesthetic (where you are put to sleep).

Your cervix (womb be placed inside your vagina a few hours before the abortion to soften your cervix and make it easier to open. Sometimes, an alternative ‘preparing tablet is given by mouth. A small, plastic suction tube connected to a pump will then be inserted into your womb and used to remove the fetus and surrounding tissue. After having a vacuum aspiration abortion, you will usually be able to go home the same day. However, following the procedure, you will usually experience some bleeding which can last for up to 14 days. In most cases, the bleeding will be quite heavy for 2-3 days before settling down.

Some women only bleed for 3-4 days in total. You may experience mild or moderate cramps for which you can take simple painkillers. Late medical abortion (from 9-20 weeks of pregnancy) As well as being used for early abortion, omnipresent and prostaglandin can also be used for abortion later in pregnancy. However, the abortion will take longer and more than one dose of prostaglandin may be needed. This type of abortion is similar to having a late natural miscarriage. After having a late medical abortion, you will usually be able to return home on the same day. However, sometimes an overnight stay in hospital may be required.

In rare cases, a second course of prostaglandin tablets may be required. This will be discussed with you. In a small number of cases (less than one in 20), the placenta or afterbirth does not pass. In this case, you may need to have a small operation under a general anesthetic to remove the placenta. Surgical dilation and evacuation (from 1 5 weeks of pregnancy) Surgical dilation and evacuation (D&E) is a procedure carried out under general anesthetic. Your cervix will be gently stretched and dilated and forceps and a suction tube will be used to remove the fetus.

Surgical D&E usually takes 10-20 minutes to perform and, if you are healthy and there are no complications, you may be able to return home the name day. As with vacuum aspiration, you may experience some bleeding for up to 14 days. Late abortion (20-24 weeks) There are two options for a late abortion carried out at 20-24 weeks. Both require an overnight stay in hospital and are described below. Surgical two-stage abortion – stage one stops the heartbeat of the fetus and softens the cervix. Stage two is carried out the following day and involves removing the fetus and surrounding tissue.

Both stages are carried out under general anesthetic. Medically induced abortion – this is similar to a late natural miscarriage and involves the medicine, Aristotelian, being injected into your womb, making it contract strongly (as in labor). Contractions can last 6-12 hours. You will remain awake during the procedure and may be given medicines to help control the pain. D&E may then be used to ensure the womb is completely empty. 4th slide Risks of abortion There is a low risk of problems occurring during an abortion. However, there are more likely to be problems if an abortion is carried out later in a pregnancy.

The risks associated with abortions are: hemorrhage (excessive bleeding) – occurs in about one in every 1 ,OHO abortions ,000 abortions damage to the womb – occurs in up to four in every 1,000 abortions during surgical abortion, and less than one in 1,000 medical abortions carried out at 12-24 weeks Risks after an abortion After an abortion, the main risk is infection in the womb, which is usually caused by failing to completely remove all of the fetus and associated tissue. You can reduce the risks of infection by using sanitary pads until the bleeding stops.

It is best to avoid using tampons until your next period. You should also avoid having sex until the bleeding has stopped. If you have an infection after an abortion, you may bleed evilly from your vagina and have some period-like pain. Antibiotics are usually used to treat the infection. If an infection is not treated, it could lead to a more severe infection of your reproductive organs, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PAID), which can cause infertility or octopi pregnancy(where a fertilized egg implants itself outside of the womb, usually in one of the fallopian tubes).

However, the risk of an infection can be reduced by taking antibiotics at the time of the abortion. Repeated abortions can cause damage to your cervix and increase the risk of late miscarriages. After having an abortion, you may experience some period-type pains and some vaginal bleeding, which should gradually improve after a few days. Most women are able to return to their usual activities within a day or so. However, you should seek medical attention if you have severe pain or if the bleeding has not stopped after 14 days.

You will usually be advised not to have sex for up to two weeks, or until the bleeding has stopped. Seek advice from your GAP, a family planning clinic or a pregnancy advisory service if you experience physical or emotional problems after avian an abortion. 5th slide How is abortion related to an TOP Abortion is related to an TOP at different stages of abortion, as there are different methods for different stages of termination. Therefore if a surgical procedure is needed for the termination of pregnancy an TOP will be present. The slide Legal perspectives and professional perspectives Two Acts of Parliament, the Abortion Act 1967 and the Human Fertilization and Embryology Act 1990, regulate the provision of abortion in England, Wales and Scotland. The Abortion Act requires that two doctors must agree to an abortion and hat it must be carried out by a registered practitioner in an NASH hospital or a location that has been approved by the Department of Health. The Abortion Act gives medical staff the legal right not to participate in abortions if they have a moral objection to the treatment.

Section 37 of the Human Fertilization and Embryology Act governs the time limits for abortion Ethical perspectives All the religions have taken strong positions on abortion; they believe that the issue encompasses profound issues of life and death, right and wrong, human relationships and the nature of society, that make it a major religious concern. People involved in an abortion are usually affected very deeply not Just emotionally, but often spiritually, as well. They often turn to their faith for advice and comfort, for explanation of their feelings, and to seek atonement and a way to deal with their feelings of guilt.

Because abortion affects heart as well as mind, and because it involves life and death, many people find that purely intellectual argument about it is ultimately unsatisfying. For them it’s not Just a matter that concerns a human being and their conscience, but something that concerns a human being and their God. Buddhists believe that life should not be destroyed, but they regard causing death as morally wrong only if the death is caused deliberately or by negligence. Traditional Buddhism rejects abortion because it involves the deliberate destroying of a life. Buddhists regard life as starting at conception.

Modern Buddhists, however, are more divided about the morality of abortion. It’s personal Buddhists are expected to take full personal responsibility for everything they do and for the consequences that follow. The decision to abort is therefore a highly personal one, and one that requires careful and compassionate exploration of the ethical sues involved, and a willingness to carry the burden of whatever happens as a result of the decision. The ethical consequences of the decision will also depend on the motive and intention behind the decision, and the level of mindfulness with which it was taken.

Islamic teachings on abortion Muslims regard abortion as wrong and harm (forbidden), but many accept that it may be permitted in certain cases. All schools of Muslim law accept that abortion is permitted if continuing the pregnancy would put the mother’s life in real danger. This is the only reason accepted for abortion after 120 days of the pregnancy. Different schools of Muslim law hold different views on whether any other reasons for abortion are permitted, and at what stage of pregnancy if so.

Some schools of Muslim law permit abortion in the first 16 weeks of pregnancy, while others only permit it in the first 7 weeks. However, even those scholars who would permit early abortion in certain cases still regard abortion as wrong, but do not regard it as a punishable wrong. The more advanced the pregnancy, the greater the wrong. The Curran does not explicitly refer to abortion but offers guidance on related matters. Scholars accept that this guidance can properly be applied to abortion.

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