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The Industrial Revolution (Wendy)

1.profoundly modified much of human experience.
2.It changed patterns of work
3.transformed the social class structure
4.altered the international balance of political and military power, giving added impetus to ongoing Western expansion into non-Western lands.
5.helped ordinary people gain a higher standard of living as the widespread poverty of the pre-industrial world was gradually reduced.

Where and why did the Industrial Revolution begin?(Wendy)
agricultural aspects.
what does agriculture have to with an industrial revolution?
1. favorable conditions for industrial production in britain were made possible by the all-important agricultural surplue, population growth, potential    markets, and raw materials.
2. It happened to have a  lot of business people who were willing to invest in such new operations-and that was necessary. Industrialization needed   individual business  owners who would take a chance on something new.
3.because early governmental support of road improvements and canal construction
4.had a better transportation network than any other country in europe
5.”ruled the waves”
6.peace and safety on its island
7.social system that favored growth of the business class and middle class
8.plentiful iron and coal resources
9.leading commercial power so merchants had the capital to invest in new enterprises.
10.had colonies that supplied raw materials and bought finished goods.

Overall description and effects of the industrial revolution (Wendy)

1. Revolution?
1. In the long view of history, the onset of the industrial revolution happened very quickly
1. Industry grew at 0.7% per year between 1700 and 1760
2. Industry grew at 3% per year between 1801 and 1831
3. The period of the Industrial Revolution is generally taken as 1780 to 1880 and occurred in stages across the world (chiefly Europe and America)
2. Made changes in all types of society
3. Had a major influence in changing governments and the way they treated people
2. Description
1. The division of labor had already occurred when people started to live in cities
2. However, work was still principally done by hand and goods were made one at a time
3. The industrial revolution occurred when machines were used in a coordinated way to make goods
3. Impact
1. May have had the most profound effect on humans since the beginning of agriculture at the beginnings of history
2. Changed patterns of work
3. Transformed social class structure
4. Altered the international balance of political and military power
5. Established European culture as the dominant culture of the world
6. Allowed ordinary people to gain a higher standard of living
4. The term “Industrial Revolution” was coined in 1830 (which shows that it was quickly recognized as a major change in English society)

Origins (Wendy)

1. Factors in England that spawned the industrial revolution occurred after the American Revolution and mostly before the end of the 19th Century
1. No civil strife or invading armies
2. Relatively good and stable government that favored trade and commerce
1. Laissez faire economic policy
2. No internal tariffs to hinder trade (as opposed to France prior to 1789 and in the politically fragmented Germany and Italy)
3. Strong and stable central bank to regulate the money supply along with good credit institutions
3. The presence of a large middle class (developed through trade, banking, and light manufacturing from England’s basic need for outside money to survive)
1. The middle class had money in excess of that needed to simply buy food and survive and was, therefore, a growing market for goods
2. The money of the middle and upper classes was available for capital investment in the new factories
3. There was an attitude of praise and respect for people who made money (Note the excellent reception of Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations, 1776)
4. A middle class was available to become the factory owners and managers
4. A geography that encouraged trade
1. Island nation
2. Reputation and history for trade and commerce
1. Most of the nations of Europe looked to London as a place to bank, get insurance, and market their goods and materials
2. Portugal, for instance, shipped over 50,000 per week in Brazilian gold through London
3. Everyone in England lived within 20 miles of a navigable river, thus providing easy transportation for imported goods to reach consumers
4. Natural rivers were supplemented with canals (built in the 1770’s)
5. Good population growth
1. A population that was mobile enough to be able to move into cities and work in the factories
2. A population that had enough food, even with the low wages
6. A tradition of strong experimental science and problem solving
2. The Agricultural Revolution led to the conditions which sparked the Industrial Revolution
1. The use of the steel plow and the horse caused great changes (late Middle Ages)
1. More total land brought under cultivation
1. Some was wild, hard soils
2. Some was land reclaimed by drainage
2. Crops rotated in a more systematic method (rather than fallowing)
3. Heavy use of fertilizer (phosphorous and nitrogen)
4. Yields improved (300% over 1700 to 1850 even though population in agriculture had increased only 14%)
2. Principally important because the changes in agriculture accelerated economic growth
3. The ability to grow crops on much larger pieces of land changed the village-centered pattern of living
4. The Low Countries were the leaders in this area but the English copied them quickly
1. The English lands were owned by large estate holders who could dictate rapid changes
2. The peasant classes in the rest of Europe slowed adoption of changes
5. Selective breeding of cattle (learned in the course of breeding race horses)
6. Enclosure of lands (fencing) protected the land that was being highly developed
1. The conversion of a common village pasture into fenced land removed the ability to graze cattle and earn a little extra money
2. This led to high costs of survey and fencing that forced many small landholders to sell to their more wealthy neighbors
3. A class of mobile, agricultural workers was created (worked for wages rather than ownership/profits)
3. Growth of foreign trade
1. Aggressive pursuit of foreign colonies for economic purposes
1. Settlement rather than exploitation (Jamestown) gave more stability
2. Companies formed which financed these colonies (Sir Walter Raleigh, the East India Company, the Hudson Bay Company)
2. Dramatic increase in the number and size of ships
1. The English were behind the Dutch and so they (the English) tried harder
2. Ships built for both trade and warfare in England
4. Successful wars and foreign conquests
1. War with the Dutch (1600’s)
1. Fought 3 Anglo-Dutch wars to counteract the Dutch thrusts in foreign trade
2. These wars hurt the Dutch more than they did the English
2. War with the French (1700’s)
1. After the Dutch were defeated (or at least slowed down), the French were the major force to be dealt with
2. The War of Spanish Succession hurt the French and the Spanish and gained key colonial territories for the English (Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, the Hudson Bay territory, West Africa)
3. The Seven Years’ War gained all of France’s New World and Indian possessions for England
4. Napoleonic wars
1. None were fought on British soil
2. Britain gained land as a result of the wars
3. British navy emerged as the most powerful in the world
3. Land and wealth in North America
1. Large population increases because of the free land that was available
2. Gave England a ready market for goods


1. Textiles
1. The Industrial Revolution became centered in Manchester, the center of the textiles industry
2. Prior to the advent of the Industrial Revolution textiles were a family enterprise
3. 4 to 5 spinners needed to keep one weaver busy
1. This imbalance was especially true after the fly-shuttle was invented
2. Unemployed and widows (spinsters) were used to supplement what a family could spin
3. Internal trade was stimulated by people traveling to try and secure more thread
4. Cotton provided a material for which spinning methods could be improved
1. Cotton was being imported from India
2. Wool and flax were not strong enough to withstand many of the spinning wheel improvements
3. Matthew Boulton created a factory powered by a primitive steam engine. Soon english textile
industry began to be remade
1. Two problems
1.Making the yarn
2.Spinning of yarn
4. John Kay invented “Flying Shuttle,” which speeded up weaving, but not the spinning of yarn
5. Eli Whitney invented cotton gin
6. James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny in 1767
1. Hand powered machine
2. Able to spin up to 24 spools of cotton simultaneously
7. Richard Arkwright invented the water frame spinning machine about 1769
1. Able to spin over a hundred spools of cotton of better strength and better fineness than on spinning wheels
2. Could not be powered by hand and so water power was used
8. Samuel Crompton combined the best features of the jenny and the water frame into the spinning mule (1779)
1. Productivity increased to over 100 times as much as the spinning wheel
2. Quickly led to specialized mills that used the water power systems that were needed
3. These mills each employed hundreds of people
5. The skills of weavers suddenly became critical since thread was now in excess
1. Prices of cotton cloth dropped since every household could find enough thread
2. Weaver wages rose dramatically since mills began to weave their own cloth
3. Many of the agricultural workers (who were paid wages) moved to cities and became weavers
6. Mechanical power looms increased the output of the weavers (invented in 1785, but they didn’t work well until after 1800)
7. Jacquard looms
1. Invented by Joseph-Marie Jacquard, a Frenchman (1801)
2. Used wooden cards with holes to prevent or allow movement of needles, thus controlling the weave pattern
3. Precursor to IBM punch cards
8. By 1831 over 22% of the entire industrial production of England was due to textiles
2. Working conditions in the factories
1. Very poor, especially when compared to the cottage industry conditions (work at home)
2. Factories turned to children, especially orphans, to supply the labor
3. Luddites (1811)
1. Handicraftsmen who were displaced by machines
2. Organized together to try and stop further industrialization
3. Masked night raids with much equipment destroyed
4. Mass trial in 1813 resulting in numerous hangings and deportations

Iron and Steel (Emily)
1. Raw materials used for machinery
2. Henry Bessemer created steel
3. Price of British steel fell a half of what the best iron had formerly cost

Energy and Transportation(Emily)

1. Early sources for energy were animal power and plants (burning)
1. This situation limited the amount of production since the animals usually required humans on a direct and nearly one-to-one basis
2. Methods to transport energy were futile
2. Water emerged as a source of energy
1. Water mills had been in widespread use since the late Middle Ages
2. England had water capacity but was quickly using up the available space on rivers with sufficient elevation drop to run the mills
3. The iron industry reached an energy crisis
1. Iron production used lots of wood (for burning and to make charcoal)
2. England had long since cut down its trees and made farms
3. Coal became the energy source
1. Coal was needed in large supplies and so the mines were dug deeper and deeper
2. The mines often filled with water
3. 75% of patents issued in England for 100 years previously were connected to the coal industry and 14% were devoted solely to draining the mines
4. Pumps were installed but they were powered by horses (over 500 horses were used in one mine during this time)
4. Steam pumps developed for the mines
1. Savery (1698) and Newcomen (1705) invented the first primitive steam engine pumps
2. James Watt vastly improved the steam engine efficiency (1763)
1. Added a separate condenser so that the condenser could stay hot
2. Watt secured financing and formed a company to make steam engines
5. Steam engines were widely applied to many industrial situations, including textiles and iron
1. The steam engine was used to power the iron rolling mills
2.Robert Fulton succeeded in sending an experimental steam engine, The Clermont, up the Hudson River
2. A conversion from wood to coal (coke) gave the iron industry its needed raw materials since England was almost out of trees
3. The iron industry boomed (an increase from 17,000 tons in 1740 to 3,000,000 in 1844)
4. Steam engines allowed factories to be built anywhere, with dependence on water availability
6. Railroads
1. Steam power applied to coaches, especially for freight transportation
2. Rails were laid as the logical solution
3. Roads were generally not adequate to support continued use of the heavy cars needed for freight transportation
4. Railroads were built throughout England and were immediately profitable
5. The railroads brought reliability to freight transportation
6. The railroads expanded the markets that could be served by a factory
7. People were able to commute and so large urban centers were created
8. First railroad was from Liverpool to Manchester
7. Other industries
1. Grow in textiles let to factories for dyeing and bleaching compounds and soap
2. Metalworking increased as the supply of iron improved
3. Pottery (Wedgewood, Twyfords, Doulton) in the mid-lands where clay was especially good quality

England versus continental Europe(Emily)

1. By 1860 England was producing 20% of the industrial goods of the entire world
1. England’s gross national product rose 4x between 1780 to 1851
2. Population in England increased from 9 to 21 million in that time frame
3. Several British inventors took their technology to continental Europe and licensed it and supervised the building of factories to use it but these were often considered to be anti-British so there was a reluctance to take too much technology abroad
2. Belgium was the first continental country to adopt Britain’s industrialization
1. Belgium had large coal and iron resources
2. Belgium was a new nation (created after Napoleon’s defeat) and was anxious to succeed in the world
3. Germany established iron factories and woolen weavers, especially in the Saxony and Silesia areas where raw materials were plentiful but was much slower than England in developing industry
4. France was much slower to industrialize
1. No tradition of money making
2. France was much larger than England and had fewer navigable rivers and poorer roads
3. France’s government was not as progressive in supporting commerce
4. France had fewer coal deposits
5. The French Revolution and its chaotic aftermath in France slowed any progress and ate up capital
6. Major inventions/discoveries
1. Photography — Daguerre (1839)
2. Radioactivity — Becqueral and Curie (1890’s)
5. Mechanization
1. Internal combustion engine — Lenoir (1860)
2. 4-stroke combustion engine — Otto (1876)
3. Automobile — Benz (1885)

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