Home » The Human Health Mosaic- study guide 1

The Human Health Mosaic- study guide 1

single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes
Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan
Eukarya Domain
domain consisting of all organisms that have a nucleus; includes protists, plants, fungi and animals
Four human tissues
Connective tissues, Muscle tissues, Epithelial tissue, nervous tissue
connective tissue
A body tissue that provides support for the body and connects all of its parts
muscle tissue
A body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move.
epithelial tissue
A body tissue that covers the surfaces of the body, inside and out
nervous tissues
detect changes in the body and respond by generating nerve impulses, made up by the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Eukaryotic Organelles
Organelles divid the cytoplasm into compartments within which specialized activities take place
cellular respiration
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
The Cell Cycle
The life of a cell divided into three stages: interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
gene expression
conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein
Functions of blood
Transportation, regulation, protection
Composition of blood
55% plasma, 45% formed elements
cardiovascular system
Is the organ system composed of the heart and blood vessels. Distributes blood, delivers nutrients, and removes waste
Functions of cardiovascular system
is the body’s transportation network. Our bodies are too large and complex for diffusion alone to distribute materials efficiently. This system provides a means to distribute vital chemicals from one part of the body to another quickly enough to sustain life. The heart rate and the diameter of certain blood vessels are continually being adjusted in prompt response to the body’s changing needs.
o Transportation of substances
o Regulation of temperature, pH, and water content of ells
o Protection
The pulmonary circuit
The pathway that transports blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs and back to the left atrium of the heart. The pulmonary circuit begins in the right atrium, as veins return oxygen-poor blood from the systemic circuit. The blood then moves from the right atrium to the right ventricle. Contraction of the right ventricle pumps poorly oxygenated blood to the lungs through the pulmonary trunk, which divides to form the left and right pulmonary arteries. In the lungs, oxygen diffuses into the blood, and carbon dioxide diffuses out. The now oxygen-rich blood is delivered to the left atrium through pulmonary veins, two from each lung. The pathway of blood pumped through the pulmonary circuit by the right side of the heart
The systemic circuit
the pathway of blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the cells of the body and back to the right atrium. The systematic circuit begins when oxygen-rich blood enters the left atrium. Blood then flows to the left ventricle. When the left ventricle contracts, oxygenated blood is pushed through the largest artery in the body, the aorta. The aorta arches over the top of the heart and gives rise to the smaller arteries that eventually feed the capillary beds of the body tissues. The venous system collects the oxygen-depleted blood and eventually culminates in veins that return the blood to the right atrium. These veins are the superior vena cava, which delivers blood from regions above the heart, and the inferior vena cava, which returns blood from regions below the heart. Thus, the pathway of blood through the systemic circuit pumped by the left side of the heart
The pulmonary circuit pathway
Right atrium —> AV (tricuspid) valve —> right ventricle —> pulmonary semilunar valve —> pulmonary trunk —> pulmonary arteries —> lungs —> pulmonary veins —> left atrium
The systemic circuit pathway
Left atrium —> AV (bicuspid or mitral) valve —> left ventricle —> aortic semilunar valve —> aorta —> body tissues —> inferior vena cava or superior vena cava —> right atrium
blood pressure
the pressure that is exerted by the blood against the walls of blood vessels
Systolic pressure/ diastolic prssure
Different waves in the EKG
P wave- atria retract
QRS wave- ventricles contract
T wave- recovery
respiratory system
system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide using the lungs
Structures of the respiratory system
includes the nose, pharynx, larynx (voice box: epiglottis), trachea (windpipe), bronchi, and lungs.
plasma membrane
A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells
the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
Uses chemicals to break down food and worn out cell parts
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes
Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
An endomembrane system covered with ribosomes where many proteins for transport are assembled.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Assembles membrane lipids and detoxifies the cell of drugs; no ribosomes on this organelle.
Golgi complex
Organelle that packages and distributes proteins
Long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the cell
Thick hollow tubes that make up the cilia, flagella, and spindle fibers.
Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
the splitting of glucose, a six-carbon sugar, into two three-carbon molecules called pyruvate. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell and is the starting point for cellular respiration and fermentation. Glucose —> 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 4 ATP (-2 ATP)
transition reaction
the phase of cellular respiration that follows glycolysis and involves pyruvate reacting with coenzyme A (CoA) in the matrix of the mitochondrion to form acetyl CoA. The acetyl CoA then enters the citric acid cycle. 2 pyruvate —> 2 acetyl CoA + NADH + CO2
citric acid cycle
the cyclic series of chemical reactions that follows the transition reaction and yields two molecules of adenosine triphosphate (one from each acetyl CoA that enters the cycle) and several molecules of nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2), carriers of high-energy electrons that enter the electron transport chain. This phase of cellular respiration occurs inside the mitochondrion and is sometimes called the Krebs cycle. 2 acetyl CoA —> 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2
Electron transport chain
a series of carrier proteins embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion that receives electrons from the molecules of nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) produced by glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. During the transfer of electrons from one molecule to the next, energy is released, and this energy is then used to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the chain.
the chromosomes begin to thicken and shorten, the nucleolus disappears, the nuclear envelope begins to break down, and the mitosis spindle forms in the cytoplasm.
the chromosomes, guided by the fibers of the mitosis spindle, form a line at the center of the cell. As a result of this alignment, when the chromosomes split at the centromere, each daughter cell receives one chromatic from each chromosome and those a complete set of the parent cell’s chromosomes.
the chromatids of each chromosome begin to separate, splitting at the centromere. Now separate entities, the chromatids are considered chromosomes, and they move toward opposite poles of the cell
a nuclear envelope forms around the group of chromosomes at each pole, the mitotic spindle is disassembled, and nucleoli reappear. The chromosomes also become less condensed and more threadlike in appearance
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