Helping students increase they fluency words per minutes (WPM) can have a variety of methods that can be used. One method that can be used to increase students WPM accuracy when reading is repeated reading. Repeated reading is when students read a passage multiple times (Vaugh & Boss, 2015, p. 227). Kim, Bryant, Bryant, and Park (2016) studied the effects of repeated reading with students with Reading Learning Disabilities (RLD). Based on the information that was gathered from different research who studied and measured the effects of repeated reading in regards to students with and without learning disabilities (pp. -3).
The study did conclude that students do benefit with repeated reading in regards to improving their fluency. Especially students with Reading Learning Disabilities (RLD) because they are correcting errors and are beginning the stages of comprehending what they are reading (Kim et al. , 2016, pp. 7-8). The demonstration of the study of the effect repeated reading to improve students’ fluency with the increase of WPM. Exposing students to words they are reading incorrectly will decrease the probability of the student of reading the word incorrectly every times they come in contact with the word in a passage.
Students with learning disabilities where taken into consideration in the study. The demonstration of the study to include the improvement of students with learning disability when using repeated reading. Also, seeing how using repeated reading as a literacy intervention to help student increase their Word Per Minute (WPM) will help any struggling student regardless of their reading level. The use of repeated reading to increase a student WPM will me an effective intervention to use when helping student with their fluency.
Another argument that demonstrates the positive impact of repeated reading has on students ability to increasing their WPM is when it is being compared to listening repeated reading. The research conducted by Raosnki (1990) measured 3rd grade students working in two different types of repeated reading. Group were placed under two groups repeated reading or reading-while-listening. Both groups were measuring the impact either method of repeated reading will have on students’ fluency (pp. 147-148).
When repeated reading was compared to the effectiveness of helping students with fluency it increased a student WPM when comparing the study to listening to the reading (Raisnki, 2017, p. 149). Although the study did not take into account students with learning disabilities or English Language Learners (ELL) students, it did show the positive impact repeated reading can have on learners. The explanation of comparing repeated reading to a different method, gives an understanding how students involvement in repeated reading will improve students fluency.
Exposing all types of learners to repeated reading will allow student to practice multiple times what they are reading and fix words that they pronounced incorrectly the first time they read the passage. Implementing repeated reading as a literacy intervention method for students with different needs or reading level, will help each student practice their accuracy when reading, but also how fast or slow they are reading. Student will be able to find his or her own rhythm when they hear themselves reading the same passage multiple times.
Using the given information, using repeated information as a literacy intervention will help increase their accuracy in WPM. Pair Reading: Using pair reading can be a successful method of literacy intervention to help all learners increase their fluency when being recorded on WPM. Teaching students how to be a good listener is also an important role of helping the reader. Dufrene, Reisener, Olmi, Zober-Martell, McNutt, and Horn (2010) used peer tutoring as a method of measuring student’s fluency in reading.
Within the study, students were trained on how to take the role of a tutor when they are listening to their partner read (p. 242). The study concluded that implementing pair reading did increase students fluency when it measured students WPM. They saw an increase in the students who were performing at a low reading rate, and at the end of the study did show an increase in the WPM (Dufrene et al. , 2010, pp. 248- 251). The methods the studied used by first training students on how to be a tutor did demonstrates to have an impact on students performance.
Student knew that when they would be reading with a partner and would be having two roles. Once students were placed in the role of the reader, students had an understanding of what would be expected from them, so they began to perform based on the given measurable criteria to measure the accurate WPM. The study did not specifically describe student with learning disabilities or ELL student, but did make reference of students who are working in a tier 2 or tier 3 setting. Knowing that students who need additional support are placed in these tiers does indicate how they will benefit from peer reading.
Implementing peer reading with students with different reading level will help them increase accuracy of reading WPM because they will be able to listen to their partners reading and remember the words they read incorrectly. By one of the students reading one word incorrectly keeps both students accountable to knowing how to pronounce the words. Also, student will be able to learn from each other in regards of knowing what to do when they do not know how to read a word. This will force both the reader and tutor to implement what they know about reading.
Giving student the opportunity to work with a partner will increase their critical thinking of how to read unknown words. They will begin using what they know in reading and apply those skills. By adding peer reading as a reading intervention students will be help responsible to read as accurately as they can and continue to learn from the words they have challenges reading. Implementing pair reading at a literature intervention with fluency by the level of confidence they can build when reading with a peer.
In comparison, when students are reading with a teacher they are more nerves and more likely to make mistakes when reading. Maisinger, Schwanenflugel, Bradley, and Stahl (2004) in their study concluded when students are given the opportunity to participate in partner reading they have higher self confidence based on the positive feedback they receive from their partner. The research also measured students ability to stay on task when given the responsibility of reading with a selective partner.
Students did follow directions and worked according to the given instruction (pp. 134- 137). Helping students improve their fluency is helping them over come those challenging words they continue to struggle with. Students also need to build confidence when they are reading to avoid making mistakes when they are reading. They need to have a sense of confidence when they read to someone else, and by hearing how their partner read aloud will allow readers to have an reading expectation from someone their age.
The study did not mentioned students with learning disabilies or ELL, but this can be adaptable to them by placing them with students who are closer to their reading level and not their grade reading level. The study making the connection of improving fluency with the use of peer assistance with help the four students participating in the literacy intervention by assisting the person who is reading. They will be able to help each other by reading those unknown words and listening to how to read in a normal reading paist. – Check if anything else needs to added to this section.