The character of Smerdyakov in Dostoevskys Brothers Karamazov appears to me to epitomize Nietzsches idea of the slave revolt. With a closer look at the book we see that Smerdyakov appears to have been plotting throughout the entire story. Upon a close analysis we see that he had both a reason and a means for revenge against almost all of the other characters. We also see that he comes out ahead. Much like Nietzsches slave revolt, where there is an inversion of power, and the weakling comes out the winner. In this paper I will attempt to show how Smerdyakov accomplished this inversion of power.
I will take an in depth look into the relationships that Smerdyakov had with the other characters, and show how and why he fits Dostoevsky first presents Smerdyakov, in the Brothers Karamazov, in Book three of Part one. The author divulges details of the conception of the fourth son of Fyodor Karamazov. Late on a September evening, a drunk Fyodor, by modern standards, rapes a homeless woman. Stinking Lizaveta, the victim of Fyodors violence, was a legend in the town. Regardless of her unattractive and dirty appearance, her poverty, and homelessness, the townspeople regarded her ith sympathy and compassion.
Fyodor, on the other hand, treated Lizaveta as an insubordinate who was undeserving of even an ounce of respect. He and his friends mock her. He then rapes her. As if these actions are not cruel and offensive enough, he vehemently denies any of it happening. Later, when Lizaveta gives birth to Fyodors illegitimate son, it is Grigory and Marfa who take the boy in, baptize him, an decide to raise the child. The townspeople mistakenly credit Fyodor for taking the dead womans child into his house. All of these actions on the part of Fyodor are the cause for his punishment.
While Fyodor neglected his fatherly duties to his other three sons, to his fourth, he rejects them completely. He finds the controversy around the mystery of the boys conception amusing. He employs his own son as one of his servants, as his lackey: Although incredible attention to detail is paid to the story of Lizaveta, Dostoevsky waits to speak of the boy himself. It is as if the author is all ready separating this last son. Dostoevsky claims to not want to go into detail about Smerdyakov so as to not distract the reader from the story. However, it is an intentional set-up on the part of the author.
When we finally learn more of this mysterious character, it is not until four chapters later. Dostoevsky is oddly able to summarize the character of Smerdyakov in only five pages, whereas, with the characters of his brothers he needs many more pages. In this way, the author is showing the mistreatment of this innocent boy by all who know him. Grigory is ashamed of him. He spreads the story of Smerdyakovs birth and ruins his reputation indefinitely. All three of the brothers treat Smerdyakov not as an equal, but as a servant. Despite his displays of intelligence, Smerdyakov is labeled and mocked by everyone.
He is called a lackey, an ass, a scoundrel, and So, quite predictably, we find out in the sixth chapter of Book three, that Smerdyakov is, to say the least, bitter about his mistreatment. Smerdyakov seems to be innately aware of the violence, disrespect, and cruelty from which he was conceived. He is outwardly cold and passionless. Inwardly he has a lot of anger. He reacts to his situation much in the same way that the lamb reacts to the bird of prey according to Nietzsche. Those who are in power are the birds and those who the powerful use as a crutch to survive are the lambs.
Nietzsche tells us that although the birds of prey must eat the lamb to survive, the lambs still hold the birds of prey accountable for being birds of prey (25). So although Smerdyakov knows that he has no control over the position that he has been put in, he is still is going to be angry and resentful of it. The similar characteristic of the three Karamazov brothers is their explosive exhibition of their passion. The youngest Karamazov, Alexei, is passionate about religion. He passes some time in the town monastery where he is greatly influenced by the elder Zosima.
Even though he ecides against living his life as a monk, he vows to uphold the teachings of his mentor. Throughout the entire book he attempts to exhibit to others the workings of his God. Alexei is greatly admired and respected for his unyielding dedication to the truth. He embodies religious The second Karamazov, Ivan, is passionate about his intellect. he is known as an educated and intellectual man. He is the only son to have graduated from college. Ivans reviews of books are published and his name is familiar in literary circles. He takes great pride in his talented mind.
He is consumed by his love for books. Dmitri, the eldest Karamazov brother, holds a slightly more complicated passion. His passion lies in dishonest and immoral actions. He is presented as a lover of women, money, and alcohol. His nature is fun loving and easy-going. He seems to attract controversy and is always surrounded by illegal, unethical, and unscrupulous activities. Smerdyakov, on the other hand, does not exhibit this common Karamazov trait of explosive passion. Dostoevsky precisely outlines in the sixth chapter how Smerdyakov is different in this respect.
In this chapter, Smerdyakov systematically rejects the three passions that consume he lives of his three brothers. First, Smerdyakov challenges Grigorys teachings of the Scriptures. He offends Grigory by questioning the plausibility of the Bible. He rejects religion. Then, Fyodor recommends a book and is offended when Smerdyakov finds it boring. Smerdyakov also finds no humor in a book that is supposed to be funny. He rejects books. Finally, Smerdyakov proves to be trustworthy and honest because he returns money to Fyodor. he rejects immoral activities such as stealing.
This rejection of the beliefs of the people who are supposed to be in charge relates directly to Nietzsches slave revolt. The idea is that the weak base their idea of good on whatever is opposite of what the strong see as good. In Nietzsches lamb vs. bird of prey description the lambs oppose the ideas of the strong saying Let us be different from the evil ones, namely good! (26) Smerdyakovs passion stems from his birth in Fyodors garden and ripens in his dreams while asleep in the kitchen. His passion is cooking. He closely examines and studies the different characteristics of food.
He is then sent to training school in order to become a cook. Smerdyakov has a terrific knack for manipulating foods. The final dishes nearly always turn out erfectly. His culinary artistry imbues his personality. Smerdyakov conjures up a recipe for delicious soup, as well as a recipe for sweet revenge on his family. Smerdyakovs entire existence from womb to death is on the exterior of the lives around him. He is born outside of the birth order accepted by society. This is symbolically demonstrated by the fact that his birth took place outside.
The servants of Fyodors household deliver the baby boy in the garden. As a child, he sleeps separated from the other members of the house, in the kitchen. The author reinforces this separation by introducing his character independent of any ther characters. Fyodor physically separates the boy from the household by sending him to Moscow. Ironically, while all of this physical separation is placed upon Smerdyakov, he is unable to separate himself from the one thing that haunts him. He can not escape his past and his fate.
Within the fenced garden where Smerdyakov was released from his mothers womb, he is forever attached to his mothers reputation and trapped by his own fate. Smerdyakov is well aware of his lot in life. His smeared name follows him to Moscow where the physical distance is obviously not sufficient. While he is outwardly distanced and separated both by others and by himself, inwardly he is restricted and confined to his circumstances of birth. This idea of being stuck in the same social class that you are born into relates back to Nietzsche once again.
The thought that a bird is always a bird, and a lamb is always a lamb is a central idea with Nietzsche. He tells us that it is impossible for us to demand that it (the bird) not express itself as strength, that is not be desire to overwhelm, a desire to cast down, a desire to become lord, a thirst for enemies and resistance and riumphs, is just as nonsensical as to demand of weakness that it express itself through strength Smerdyakov outwardly appears to grudgingly accept his fate, while inwardly he cooks up a scheme to seek revenge.
In the same way that he meticulously inspects his food as a child, Smerdyakov watches and digests every bit of information about his brothers and his father. He questions and challenges their ideas and beliefs. He learns of their quirks and passions as well as their abilities and insecurities. He secretly gathers all of these items and stores them in his head as ingredients for his recipe. Like a true broth-maker, he never divulges his secrets. Smerdyakov uses the idea of ressentiment, this idea is a back-handed revenge sought out by the weak who are looking for some sort of justice behind their suffering.
Instead of affirming himself by using an outside and forthright force, he goes behind the backs of the strong, Smerdyakov tempts Dmitri to the scene of the crime like a child to candy. Smerdyakov sets up an easy chance for Dmitri to commit the crime that has been threatening for some time. Knowing his character, Smerdyakov is aware of Dmitris cowardly inability to carry out his threats. However, impassioned by the chance, Dmitri, Smerdyakov knows, will certainly present himself at the correct time and place.
Smerdyakov cleverly devises the plan to have Dmitri appear as the main suspect while he himself is able to carry out the actual murder. After years of obeying the humiliating commands of his master/father, Smerdyakov takes revenge into his own hands. He cracks open his fathers cruel and unjust head at the same time he places his master at his feet. This is what the slave revolt is all about, putting your master at your feet. Smerdyakov accomplishes this task with the greatest of ease. Smerdyakov then places the guilt of the murder onto Ivan.
He plays on his obsession with knowledge and his persistence in gaining it. It is not until Ivan comes to him for the third time that Smerdyakov hands him the truth, the proof (the money), and the responsibility of the murder. Smerdyakov says continuously throughout the book, its always interesting to talk with an intelligent man. He mocks Ivans intelligence because he knows that Ivan can not handle certain truths. Ivan, indeed, becomes so burdened with this knowledge that he becomes insane. Smerdyakov handles the destruction of his third brother a little differently. Alexei cares to n extreme extent about others.
Smerdyakov knows that by simply affecting the two brothers whom Alexei loves, he is also affecting Alexei. Alexei, to no avail, attempts to save what remains of his brothers dehumanized states. While Smerdyakovs actions are cunning and deceitful, he knows at every moment exactly what he is doing and why he is doing it. He is fully aware of his own predicament. He is born into misfortune, attempts to avenge his name, and wreaks havoc upon this small Russian town. He carefully manipulates people and skillfully executes his plans. Like Zosimas mysterious visitor, Smerdyakov commits his crimes out of passion.
He does not wait for the jury to consider the case. Like the mysterious visitor, he convicts himself of murder and sentences himself to death, believing that there are no consequences after death. As a recap we see that Smerdyakov is embodiment of Neitzsches slave revolt. He is the weak, who has no control over his situation. He is angry of his lot in life, and is determined to do something about it. In turn he takes revenge out on all of the people that put him where he is. He ends up the winner from his view, being that he believes that there are no repercussions in the after-life to what you do in this one.