Identify the kinds of situations in which administrators are likely to have the influence on the formation of public policy, and the types of policies on which this influence would be greatest. According to Johnson, public policy consists of government choices of actions intended to serve the public purpose. These policies give public agencies the right and direction to carry out their mission and acquire all needed resource.
Johnson also stated that the fundamental principals are expressed in the U. S. and State Constitution. Statutory laws passed by the congress, state legislature and local boards and councils. Decisions made by the courts on statues and the U. S. constitution also sometimes becomes public policies. Some policies are influenced by the changes around us. Public policies are influenced by a number of factors. These factors include public opinion, the economic conditions, new scientific discoveries, technological change, interest groups, business lobbying, and other political activity.
As a result of the different factors that mange to pull and push public policy in different directions. Public policy changes occur very slowly. Even, if there is a crisis in the nation the inspiring factors can tend to check and counteract each other, slowing the development and creation of new policy. Public opinion has a really strong influence on public police. Majority of the public is really concern about the environment, energy, and global climate change in the recent years and this influence is forcing to create public policies to make change in the world.
Government is funding money in science and technology to find new scientific findings and information about climate change and the human and business impact on climate change. Also, with funding money in technology government is trying find new ways to do better things, with the new inventions, so government creates public policies that promote renewable energy and energy efficiency and that reduce environmental damage. An example of recent public policy is legalizing same sex marriage. Over the years LGBT Community has been right for their rights in the Unites states.
Some courts in different States did decide to make the decision to legalize same-sex marriage, while others states were deciding to make same-sex marriage legal or illegal. Personally, I believed that each state decided what they believe is good for the public as a whole. They may also consider cultural ideas on the issue and how their decision could have shaped public policy. But, since the U. S. Supreme Court has decide to legalize it. Same sex marriage has become a new public policy the state and governments need to follow.
Another example of public policy is the issue of gun rights is a matter of public policy, which is my term paper. With the recent mass shooting in the nation the president wants tougher gun laws are passed. This public policy wants that stricter laws that are likely to lower crime and keep guns out of the hands of criminals, mentally unstable and etc. , which is more important than an individual’s right to arms to keep the country and its citizens safe. While, others are saying that creation of this public policy will not be effective in stopping violence in the country, and that other policies need to be created.
Public polices are usually influenced the number of factors, mostly things that public is interested. Government makes these policies to please the public and keep the citizens safe Describe the most likely reasons for delays in the policy cycle—why policymakers are unable to move from one step to the next on an issue that is high on popular or institutional agenda. Provide an example. According to Johnson, policy cycle is the sequence of activities involved in making and revising public policies.
Basically it is a process, that goes through number of steps, from a starting point, where the makers of the policy begin to think of problem that need policy to a end point, where the policy has been applied and makers believe it will have positive impact on the society. Johnson also stated that the policy cycle goes through three early stages that are agenda setting, problem definition and statement objectives. During agenda setting policymakers list down the top problem that the public wants the answers to. Then the government ranks the problem according to issue that need to be addressed first before anything else.
Then comes the second step, where the government needs to describe the problem of the issue and then finds the aims how to address the issue. Followed by measuring changes, choosing replacements, executing the policy and finally observing and elevating it. There are number of reasons for delays in policy cycle. The first reason can be the legal authority; the person is elected/appointed public office to act on behalf of the public. For example, we have elected president Obama to make decision on our behalf for the country. With all the mass shooting in schools, and on streets, Obama wants to make stricter laws on gun control.
But, the people we have elected in the offices have/ and do reject any forms on laws for guns because of the people who are lobbying against stricter gun control. NRA (national Rifle Association) makes sure the senators do not pass any bills that will go against them, do to so they pay these senators. Another example for reasons in delay in policy cycle is influence. According to Johnson, influence is means of prevailing in a conflict, or of insulting change in decisions or actions generally, without using legal sanctions or threats of deprivation.
Basically, what it means is that one might seek benefits from something or someone by projecting something that is believable. for example, when individuals are running for a position in the government, during their rallies they will say anything to gain support from the people of the country. For instance, Donald Trump is running for president election and in his speech, he keeps repeating that he will create a wall between the U. S. and Mexico, so that illegals can’t come to the United States. For number of Americans this might sound like a good idea, but would he really be able to do this.
Will the Congress really pay to build the wall? Personally, I don’t think so. When congress could not stop the government shutdown in 2013, I highly doubt they will splash millions of dollars to build a wall. But, for Trump, this sentence is bringing him a lot of support. Policy cycle is influenced by number of factors. Whether it is power or influence, any of these factors can change delay the process in policy cycle. I believe the policies that need to be addressed immediately are not, and usually are pressed down by big donors, and the corrupt government does not take any stand for the people.
They only look at what is being gifted to them. The U. S. Constitution states what the government needs to provide services to the public. While these services vary significantly, all are designed to improve the lives of the United States population, as well as people around the world. The two essential public purposes the government needs to provide to its citizens are promote scientific and technological advancement and protect the lives, property and rights of citizens are two essential public purposes.
The Unites States government does endless number of jobs for the American society, when compared to other countries. The first job is to protect the lives, property and rights of citizens are two essential public purposes. According to Johnson, “since ancient times government have been expected to protect the lives and property of citizen, since ancient time. ” This public purpose also uses the U. S. Constitution of civil rights and liberties. Civil rights are usually revolved around the basic right to be free from unequal treatment based on certain protected characteristics such as; race, gender, disability, etc. and civil liberties that deal with basic rights and freedoms that are guaranteed from the Bill of Rights and the Constitution.
Civil liberties include freedom of speech, right to privacy, to be free from unreasonable searches of your home, to marry, to vote, fair court trial. It also protects the right to property, including intellectual property, freedom of expression and so on. Present day, the United States is threats are sent to the Unites States every other day, whether it is terrorist, natural disasters, diseases or citizens within the country with criminal intent.
The government purpose is to protect the people and do what’s best for the citizens of the country. Another essential public purpose the government does for the public it to promote scientific and technological advancement. In today world, the government with its ability has a lot to influence markets, technology, and behavior through policies and regulations. In this public purpose education is the core the government is supporting. If the citizens have the right to education at any point in their life, then there are more chances of getting better jobs, which will increase the economy.
For example, if there is a group of students who are interested in science the government funding will help the students to do more research in what they want to, and if they do discover something beneficially in the science field, this funding will help the government make more money. Personally, I think it’s a vice-versa process. To achieve the same effort differently, could create some conflict because of the situation. The action of one purpose may contradict the other purpose. For example, if the U. S. Constitution did not state who can and cannot have education, there could be some discrimination in promoting scientific and echnological advancement in United States.
For example, if the Constitution did not say anything about not discriminating against gender, there would a huge issue in the promoting scientific and technology. What if, schools did not allowed female to get higher education, the world could/would have lost a lot of knowledge. The government would not be providing the essential purpose to the all the people. But, just gender, but also color. Also, what is the Constitution did not protect the rights it does protect. The two essential public purposes both go hand in hand to encourage better lifestyle, education and community.