History of Special Education
It was not until the middle decades of the eighteenth century that Europe turned, for the first time, towards the education of persons with disabilities. The spirit of reform, crystallized In the philosophy and precepts of the European Enlightenment, created new vistas for disabled persons and the pioneers who ventured to teach them. Although special education emerged in a number of national contexts, France was the crucible where innovative pedagogies to assist those deaf, blind, and intellectually disabled emerged and flourished (Winner, 1986).
Following the French initiatives, movements to provide services for those In the normative categories of deaf, blind, and intellectually disabled were contemporaneous In continental Europe, Britain, and North America. Prior to the mid-eighteenth century, individual deviations were rarely tolerated and little was done for those who in some way disrupted the norms of a society. Disability was not an innocuous boundary; rather, it was a liability in social and economic participation.
People perceived as disabled – whatever the type or degree – were lumped together under the broad categorization of Idiot, scorned as Inferior beings ND deprived of rights and privileges. This early period is replete with innumerable stories of healing, many imbued with an Indeed, many special educators seem curiously disinterested in the foundations of the field; historical knowledge Is learned Incidentally and unintentionally (Monster & Crockett, 1999-2000; Weller, 2004).
To some, history becomes Increasingly selective, with the past made over to slut present Intentions; others speak to the ‘lack of history (Reengaging, Hutchins & Lee, 1 997, p. 361). At the same time, some contemporary writers disparage earlier events, programmer, and pioneers in favor f contemporary models. Some point to facsimiled traditions; others hold that if today’s inclusive movement embodies the best ideals of social Justice then the past, by extension, had to be unjust (Winner, 2004).
Implicit to this position is a steadfast unwillingness to learn from the wisdom of the accumulated past. The middle decades of the eighteenth century witnessed the pervasive influence of the European Enlightenment. While the intellectual project of the Enlightenment was to build a sound body of knowledge about the world, its humanitarian philosophy prompted ideas about the equality of all people and the unman responsibility to take care of others, particularly individuals outside the private circle of the home and the family.
Reform movements sprang up, aimed at the improvement of the well-being of groups of individuals, varying from poor people and slaves to prisoners, the insane, and disabled people. In France, the ABAГ© Michel Charles De leapГ©e (sign language) assimilated Enlightenment ideals of equality, as well as novel concepts about language and its development. He Joined these to the sensationalist philosophy of John Locke and the French philosophers to promote promoting a silent language of the hands was not unprecedented, it was breathless revolutionary in the context of the times.
In devising and instructing through a language of signs, the ABAГ© gave notice that speech was no longer the apex of instruction in the education of deaf persons. Simultaneously, he influenced and guided innovations for other groups with disabilities, specifically those blind, deaf blind, and intellectually disabled. Following De leapГ©ex.’s successful mission with deaf students, Valentine HГ¤u in 1782 initiated the instruction of blind persons using a raised print method. Somewhat later, in 1810, Detoured Segueing devised pedagogy for those considered to be mentally retarded.
The French educational initiatives traveled the Atlantic to be adopted by pioneer educators in US and Canada. Rejection of French innovations did not imply that British advances were minor. On the contrary. Building on the prerogatives of earlier pioneers, teachers and clergy such as Thomas Broadsword and John Townsend promoted education for deaf persons. Schemes to assist other groups soon followed. By the close of the eighteenth century in Europe and Britain, the instruction of disabled persons was no longer confined to isolated cases or regarded merely as a subject of philosophic curiosity.
Permanent facilities were established, staffed by a cadre of teachers experimenting with novel and innovative pedagogical methods. The French endeavors formed the core of systems and methods adopted in the United States and much of British North America (Canada). In the latter, however, the Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick initially adopted British pedagogy (see wetter, 1993). Founded on a humanitarian philosophy, evangelical commitment, and unbounded philanthropy, they established from 1817 onwards a complex of institutions designed to cater to the unique needs of exceptional individuals.
The conference aims to engage teachers and school administrators in the discussions of the evolving practices in handling SPED learners with the end-view of producing inclusive policies. Preparations are now underway for the conference to be held in November in Lillo which carries the theme “Special Education: A Bridge to Inclusion. ” Search for the Most Outstanding Receiving Teachers, as well as Outstanding SPED Teachers and SPED Centers. The national finalists will be awarded certificates while the national winners will receive plaques of appreciation and cash prizes.
The conference will also be a venue to discuss current trends, skills and practices on the management of inclusive education schools. “We can also expect presentations on researches on inclusive education which others ay adopt or adapt,” added Luster. The Philippines, as a signatory of the Slamming Statement of Action on Special Needs Education, recognizes the principle of equal educational opportunities for “all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other conditions” (Slamming Statement, 1994).
This framework was adopted in the Philippines through the Department of Education Culture and Sports (now Depend) Order no. 26 which institutionalized inclusive education. The order required the organization of at least one SPED center in each division and implementation of SPED orgasm in all school districts where there are students with special needs. Special education started in the Philippines in 1907 with the establishment of the Insular School for the Deaf and Blind. The school started with 92 deaf persons and one blind person.
Today, Depend serves 11 types of children with special needs in public schools. As of school year 2006-2007, there were 162,858 students with special needs at the elementary level, 51% or 83,231 of whom are in the gifted program. The remaining 49 % were students with various disabilities such as hearing impairment, visual impairment, learning usability, mental retardation, behavior problem, autism, and cerebral palsy. Students with learning disabilities comprise 25% of students with special needs.
However, up to this date, many children with learning disabilities, mental retardation, and autism remain unidentified in public schools (Depend, AAA). The inclusion of children under these three categories of special cases were among the major concerns of the DEEP- SUB-limousine Education (E) project. Historical Foundation of Inclusive Education Juliet A. Gregory, and Adelaide C. Jinee entitled Introduction To Special Education, it as during the year of 1902 and under the American regime that the Filipino children with disabilities were given the chance to be educated. Mr..
Fred Atkinson, General Superintendent of Education, proposed to the Secretary of Public Instruction that the children whom he found deaf and blind should be enrolled in school like any other ordinary children. However, the country’s special education program formally started on 1907. Mr.. David Barrows, Director of Public Education, and Miss Delight Rice, an American educator, worked hard for this program to be possible. Mr.. Barrows worked for the establishment of the Insular School for the Deaf and Blind in Manila and Miss Rice was the administrator and at the same time the teacher of that school.
Today, the school for the Deaf is located at Harrison Street, Papas City and the Philippine National School for the Blind is adjacent to it on Polo Road. During the year 1926, the Philippine Association for the Deaf (PAD) was composed of hearing impaired members and special education specialists.