History of Computer
The First man-made computing device. It can perform Dalton and subtraction invented in China Pascal’s calculating machine/Baseline Invented by Blaine Pascal The first mechanical calculator Can perform addition & subtraction Leibniz calculator First general-purpose calculating machine – Extended version of Pascal Calculating machine Can perform multiplication and Division Invented by Gottfried Leibniz Automatic weaving loom/1805 Invented by Joseph-Marie Jacquard- This device use punched cards to control weaving patterns The program contains programs for looms task
Babbage Deference & Analytical Engine/1822 & 1835-1869- Difference engine, can compute tables – Analytical engine, first general purpose computer, which Is completely automatic and capable of calculating any mathematical problems ; Invented by Charles Babbage Punched card tabulators – The first use of punched cards to store data Developed by Herman Hollering Mark 1 First general-purpose electromechanical computer at Harvard university – Developed by Howard Alike, and known as MARK Digital computer- Can perform four basic arithmetic operation and stored the Information In tabular form.
Minicomputer ; also known as mid-size or mid-range computer ; similar to but small and less powerful than a mainframe computer can support 2 to 5 users and computer professionals, which are connected to several workstations or terminals. Mainframe computer ; can support hundreds/thousands users and computer professionals ; smaller and power more powerful than a supercomputer ; they are used mostly by banks, airlines, a large insurance company or the social security system. ; or companies that handles millions of transactions.
Supercomputer ; the biggest and fastest computer ; can handle gigantic amount of scientific computation. ; they can perform million instruction per second and are used in forecasting. Prices range from $250, 000 to $30 millions. A system is an organized group of related and interdependent elements, part, or components interacting with one another in performing the individual and specific task for the purpose of meeting one or more goals and objectives. An example of this is a computer system, which consist the following: 1.
Hardware – refers to the internal and external physical compositions of the computer. 2. Software – refers too set of instructions that is to be executed by the computer. Its is called program. 3. Plowshare – refers to the personnel involved thin the computer installation or it could be anybody who wants his Job to be done with the use of computers. 4. Tidewater – refer to the steps specifying the manner certain activities are to be accomplished. Hardware 1 . Central Processing Unit (CPU) – the brain of the computer – it does the actual work of executing the instruction in the program. . Memory – The computer is capable of storing and retrieving information. Internal Memory a. Random-Access Memory (RAM) – also referred to as Main Memory or Primary Memory, it is a volatile type of memory, which stores data and instruction that have en input and were waiting to be processed, and store the results of processing until they are released to the output devices. It is a read/write memory because information can be read from it or can be written into it. B. Read-only Memory (ROOM) – contains permanently stored instructions that cannot be changed.
As its name implies, it is possible to read a ROOM, but is not possible to write a new data into it. ROOM enables the computer to perform basic operations such as its start-up procedure. – is pre-loaded with data software that never change. External Memory Secondary Memory. Also known as Auxiliary Memory, it is a non-volatile type of memory that is responsible for keeping files permanently. It has two types: – Sequential storage devices such as tape 3. Input Devices. Are the conduits through which data and instruction enter a computer.
Operating System (SO) = are software that control the allocation and usage of hardware resources of a computer such as memory, central processing unit time, disk space and peripheral devices. It also accompanied by applets which is small applications that may come with the operating system as “accessories”. 2. Utilities – are application designed to perform a particular function onto solve Rowley focused problems or those related to computer system management among such are disk and file recovery & storage back up programs. Task. Example of application include word processors, spreadsheet, media players and database programs, games.