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Capitalism In Brazil Essay

Systems that exist on a global level such as, Capitalism, have the potential of being subverted, resisted, embraced or exploited based on the reaction and impact it has on a community. As a result of the introduction places can be restored or eradicated as a result. Globalisation refers to the inter collectiveness and integration of various ideas and processes such as economic, environment, political, social and cultural, and how they influence and operate on places throughout the world (Knox & Marston, 2015). Within this essay, Capitalism, as a global force of change is scrutinised through the example of Feminism.

Focusing on its effect in the military particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan, gender mainstreaming in food security in Brazil, as well as, gender mainstreaming in the city of Vienna. Women in the Military The military hold great importance in supporting, protecting, improving and defending countries across the continent, for this reason military participation is crucial. Military participation has been active for many decades, however, it is only recent whereby studies have observed quite a sudden increase of female military participation particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan (Duncanson & Woodward, 2016).

As depicted by Duncanson and Woodward (2016), within their article, ‘Regendering the military: Theorising women’s military participation. ‘ Gender inequality between men and women is an issue which is constantly challenged and questioned, particularly the concept of power differences. An issue which in January 2013 has been acknowledged and visible by an official announcement on the expulsion of restrictions that prevented female positions in military combat positions (Duncanson & Woodward, 2016).

An achievement towards the goal of equality which is further theorised by feminists who promote the concept of ‘regendered ilitary,’ as supported by various debates (Duncanson & Woodward, 2016). Debates for instance, the focus on that women should be included and encouraged to participate in military roles, rather then a question as to their capabilities (Duncanson & Woodward, 2016). The debate that highlights women to have equal opportunities to men, and in so a ‘right to fight,’ whereby women do not have limits to their goals based upon inferiority of social status (Duncanson & Woodward, 2016: 4).

Furthermore, as a citizen, women also have the right to serve their country and be able to put their democratic participation nto practice (Duncanson & Woodward, 2016). As well as the theory that women participation in the military sets an example where stereotyping surrounding women is challenged because women are involved in positions that require strength, endurance and power (Stiehm, 1989). As suggested above, women’s involvement in the military is a feminist movement striving for equality and equal opportunity.

For this particular example, feminism resists capitalism. Capitalism revolves around a society that is socially state organised, reflects an androcentric society of male lead in the work force (Fraser, 2009). Leaving women with less opportunity, nd victims of gender exclusion and inequality. As depicted, by Acker (2004), stating that gender inequality is intrinsic to capitalism, whereby human reproduction is linked to capital accumulation, while men take on the position of power and “develop capitalist enterprises,” (Acker, 2004:23).

However, with women encouraged and given the opportunity to be involved in military positions, diversification is encouraged and gender exclusion and distribution is challenged and subverted (Fraser, 2012). Thus reflecting quite an opposite representation of women in society and taking on a role in which would severely hallenge social organisation and gender restriction. This example of a regendered military, reinforces feminism as a global force of change, whereby ideas of gender, class and ideas of inferiority and superiority are put into practice and internationally related (Duncanson & Woodward, 2016).

Food security improving social and economic challenges in Brazil Food security refers to communities and populations having access to a sufficient amount of food and water that can secure liveability and health (Knox & Marston, 2015). It is the goal for many counties across world, with many facing severe famine ue to factors of extreme weather, war and overuse of resources (Knox & Marston, 2015). An example of a country struggling and striving for food security is Brazil, a country also struggling in aspects of gender inequality (Lessa & Rocha, 2011).

As Lessa and Rocha demonstrate in their article titled, ‘Food security and gender mainstreaming: Possibilities for social transformation in Brazil, (Lessa & Rocha, 2011). As previously stated, gender inequality is a social issue struggled in different aspects of everyday society and by many different locations. Struggles which in many places are yet to be challenged and improved. However, Brazil is an example of a country that aims to transform and “promote goals of gender equity,” (Lessa & Rocha, 2011:337), by implementing gender mainstreaming strategies into organisations and social work within the country (Lessa & Rocha, 2011).

As initially acknowledged in the Fourth World Conference of Women in Beijing 1995, where Brazil was inspired to create a project Building Capacity in Food Security, that was both, “attentive to gender inequalities in issues of food security and in particular in the emerging food security decision making mechanisms in Brazil,” (Lessa & Rocha, 2011:339) Considering the fact that any women in Brazil are involved in agricultural production and domestic activities, by projecting a movement where women of all different ages and social positions come together (Lessa & Rocha, 2011).

This particular case study of feminism, embraces capitalism in quite a unique way. A new wave of social transformation, that enables women to embrace their roles and duties as domesticates to outer society (Fraser, 2009). Through the participation of activities such as, harvesting and planting, organisation of wastes and preparing meals for the community, women take on a superior and crucial role in a country striving or food security (Lessa & Rocha, 2011).

Furthermore, by taking on such activities, women become a support system for their community, at the same time working towards social and economical organisation, which is the essence of capitalism (Fraser, 2009). As highlighted by Kaplan and VanderBrug, the idea of ‘gender lens,’ (2014: 1) that refers to a new perspective and outlook of inequity and inequality to provide new roles and opportunities that benefit others (Kaplan & VanderBrug, 2014).

A concept which is amplified in this particular example, where the importance of women is acknowledged and gender analysis s utilised to alter and “reshape the system to change what is valued most,” (Kaplan & VanderBrug, 2014: 3). An approach which embraces capitalism, yet allowing leadership and equality for feminism to grow and be a cause of change. This example of gender mainstreaming combines a feminist movement encouraging women to promote health and make known not only to their community, however also the wider community at an international level.

An international and global level that projects determination and problem solving, by women as, “a policy strategy for social change,” (Lessa & Rocha, 2011:341) Vienna the city of women Gender mainstreaming refers to the implementation of public policy to change and improve diversity among men or women (nn, nd, UN Women: United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women). For instance, as previously provided, where, gender mainstreaming was utilised to bring a community closer together and fill in the gab of inequality and discrimination by helping the environment.

However, gender mainstreaming is also depicted in Vienna, whereby the city embraces women and acknowledges their role and lifestyle, and design a city for to make their lives easier and efficient Giegerich, nd). As explored by Giegerich, in her article, ‘Gender Mainstreaming in Vienna: Designing A city for Women,” (Giegerich, nd). Since 1997 when gender mainstreaming was introduced into government as a way of commanding gender issues and strive towards the Advancement of Women, this policy has been acknowledged and practiced in many countries (nn, nd, UN Women: United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women).

For instance, in Vienna, whereby the government in 1999 issued a questionnaire to examine transport use in the city, and use of resources, comparing both enders (Giegerich, nd). The results finding women utilising all sorts of transportation, as well as, walking on foot more often and for longer distances then men in the city (Giegerich, nd). As depicted in a response of a women who was questioned, ‘I take my kids to the doctor some mornings, then bring them to school before I go to work. Later, I help my mother buy groceries and bring my kids home on the metro,” (Giegerich, nd: 1).

Women in general had more or a varied routine that required different access to of transportation, therefore for this reason change was considered a goal in Vienna (Giegerich, nd). Change which is now eminent through lighting added in street and pedestrians, widened footpaths, and installation of ramps and intersections (Giegerich, nd). However also, planning projects such as the building of local apartment blocks which included childcare, health services and play grounds, all aimed at making the life of women in the city easier and safer (Giegerich, nd).

This example of feminism both embraces and subverts the capitalist system. As this case study depicts, the goal is to promote equal access of resources for women, which in this instance requires spending money. Money to improve streets and footpaths, transport and lights and pedestrians, money spent with little profit as a result (Zheng, 2012). In capitalism, as depicted by Yang who is apart of the BRP Administration, “Capitalism’s ultimate goal, is to maximise profit. From the point of view of business, elimination of competition is one of the easiest ways to maximise profit,” (Zheng, 2012:3).

As suggested, in capitalism, profit is crucial to run and support the economy, and if profit is not expected or guaranteed in return capitalism is subverted. In contrast, is the opposing view that an example such as this case study reflects and embraces capitalism. A system where, “under capitalism, fairness is required in a society to provided equal opportunity to achieve success,” (Zheng, 2012:2), an equal opportunity that derives from the integration of policies and society working together (Zheng, 2012).

A concept which is depicted in this example of gender mainstreaming as public policy is put into action to provide city resources for the community. With effort to create a balance, with the benefit of equality, and a society of fairness, efficiency and organisation (Fraser, 2009). In conclusion, as depicted through the above case studies, although feminism is expressed and highlighted within all examples, when responded to capitalism, feminism subverts, resists and embraces capitalism.

As firstly conveyed with women’s participation in the military, where positions of leadership and superiority are encouraged. A moment that creates quite an opposing action from an androcentric society that is capitalism. In comparison to promoting gender equality by women involving themselves in a social organisation where food security is the aim. An example which embraces capitalism due to the goal of improving rural Brazil both socially and economically for the survival of the population.

Further more on e other hand, an example of gender mainstreaming through the improvement and recovery of a city for the life of women in the community. Both reflecting resistance and embracement of capitalism through lack of profit of the project, and the idea of a balanced and fair society as a result. As depicted, different examples of feminist acts can have a varying effect in reference to capitalism, however can reflect positively on the world through as leading examples of equal opportunity.

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