Grand Columbia Bolivar’s plan to unite Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia and Columbia. They united in 1822 but broke part in 1830 because of geography(mountains separated them). He hope it would be a workable union for all Latin American states. Jose De San Martin Led an Independence movement in Roll De Plat, Chile, and Peru instigating the Independence of United Provinces Doom Jiao VI Portuguese monarch who established seat of government in Brazil from 1808 to 1820 as a result of Napoleonic invasion of Iberian peninsula; made Brazil seat of empire with capital at ROI De Jeanine.
Doom Pedro I Son and successor of Doom JoeГo VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence from Portugal In 1822; became constitutional emperor of Brazil. And;s Santa Cruz Messiest general who established union of Independent Peru and Bola between 1829 and 1839.
Independent leaders who dominated local areas through force; considered a defiance of national policies; typical in newly independent Latin America Rafael Career was the ruler of Guatemala from 1844 to 1848 and from 1851 until his death in 1865. During his military career and presidency, the new nations in Central America faced numerous problems. Centralists People who favor national action over action at the state and local levels.
Federalist Latin-American politicians who pushed for fiscal and commercial regulatory policies to be set by regional government Political ideology A set of beliefs that one can apply onto policies and events; one’s political moral code and world view Monroe Doctrine Declaration in 1823 establishing America as a completely independent country; they were supported by the British; European rules Guano Bird droppings utilized a fertilizer; Major Peruvian trade export Positivism French philosophy based on observation and scientific approach to societal robbers Antonio Lopez De Santa Anna Caudally who seized Mexico after the collapse of it’s empire in 1824, took over in 1835 but was unseated by liberal rebellion in 1854 Manifest Destiny A belief that U. S government was destined to rule coast to coast Mexican-American war War from 1846-1848 leading to a loss of nearly haft of Mexico territory to the U. S Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo The Agreement ending the Mexican-American war; resulted in the loss of Texas and California to the U.
S, left a widespread American distrust of Latin America Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of hurt and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico; defeated French emperor La Reforms The name given to the liberal rebellion of Bonito Quartz against the forces of Santa Anna. Maximizing Von Hapsburg The emperor of Mexico following the French intervention in 1862; overthrown and executed by liberals in 1867 Priori Ditz A dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foreign companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants. Gauchos Cowboys of the South American plains; usually mixed with Indian ancestry
Juan Manuel De Rosa Federalist leader in Buenos Aries; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy Argentine Republic Replaced the state of Buenos Aries in 1862 as a result of the compromise between the centralist and federalist Domingo F. Sacramento (Fecund) Liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic; author of Fecund, a critique of caudally politics; increased international trade and launched reforms in education and transportation Fastened Coffee estates that spread within interior of Brazil between 1840 and 1860; created ajar export commodity for Brazilian trade; led to intensification of slavery in Brazil. Don Pedro II nicknamed “the Magnanimous”, was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years.
Condos Rebellious village angered at locals leaving and labor shortages (deadliest civil war in Brazier’s history) Modernization theory North America and Western Europe developed Dependency Theory The belief that development and underdevelopment were not stages but were part of the same process; that development and growth of areas like western Europe were achieved at the expense of underdevelopment of dependent regions like Latin America. Connections Advisors of government of Priori Ditz who were strongly influenced by positivist ideas; permitted government to project image of modernization. Spanish-American War War fought between Spain and the U. S in 1898; Centered on Cuba and Puerco Rice Panama Canal Aspect of American intervention in Latin America; Allowed the U. S the right to access the canal crossing the Panama isthmus 1 . What are the causes of political change in Latin America?
Give details Four external events had a major effect on Latin American political thought. The American Revolution provided a model for colonial rebellion. The French Revolution offered revolutionary ideology. The slave rebellion on the French island of SST. Dominique, led by François-Dominique Toasting L ‘Overture in 1791 , ended in 1804 with the independent republic of Haiti. The final and precipitating factor was the confused political situation in Spain and Portugal caused by French invasion and occupation. 2. Compare and contrast the Brazilian move to independence with other Latin American independence movements. Because of political unrest and invasion in Portugal, the king of Portugal was forced to flee to Brazil in 1820.
In 1822, Brazil was cleared independent with a monarchy ruling. This contrasts from the rest of Latin America’s colonies as they fought protracted revolutions for independence. Ultimately each of these colonies became republics. 3. Describe the “regional blocks” that developed in South and Central America. Greater regional integration may provide a buffer to global shocks. While Latin America has established several regional blocks, only that of Central America has succeeded in facilitating substantial trade amongst its member countries. 4. What was the centralist vs.. The federalist controversy? There were many differences among leaders about the forms of republican government.
Centralists wanted strong governments with broad powers, while federalists favored awarding authority to regional governments. 5. Characterize the Liberal politics of the period from 1850 to 1870. Liberals, influenced by the French and United States models, stressed individual rights, government. 6. How successful was reform at resolving the problems of race, class, and gender? Women, despite participation in the revolutions, gained little ground during the 19th century. They continued as wives and mothers under the authority of en; they could not vote or hold office. Lower-class women had more economic and personal freedom but otherwise shared in subordination.
Public education became more open to women to prepare them for more enlightened roles in the home. Most of the new nations legally ended the society of castes in which status depended on color and ethnicity; in reality, very little changed for natives and former slaves. Control of land, politics, and the economy was dominated by a small, white, Creole elite that displayed rigid social structures. 7. What was the nature of the economic boom of the period after 1870? The increasing demand in industrialized Europe stimulated Latin American economic growth. Political alliances were forged to influence governments in their favor at the expense of the peasants and the working class.
Export products fueled the expansion and provided resources for imports of foreign manufactured goods and local development projects. The developing commerce drew the interest of foreign investors. Germany and the United States joined Britain as major participants. The capital brought in was useful, but it placed key industries under foreign control, and it influenced the internal and external leslies of governments. 8. Describe the history of the Mexican Republic from 1824 until the 1880 or so. Compare and contrast it with the history of Argentina during the same period. The 1824 Mexican constitution was a federalist document that established a republic and guaranteed basic civil rights.
But it did not address the serious issues of inequitable distribution of land, the status of Indians, the problems of education, or the poverty of most of the population. Conservative centralists opposed liberal federalists; foreign commercial agents added additional complications. Liberals during the early asses tried sweeping reforms, but they fell before a conservative reaction led by Antonio Lopez De Santa Ana. War with the United States ended in Mexican territory. Politicians were stimulated to confront their nation’s internal problems which had contributed to defeat. Indian lawyer Bonito Quartz led a liberal revolt in 1854 and inaugurated a new constitution in 1857.
Military and church privileges were curtailed and church and Indian communal lands were sold to individuals. Speculators, however, bought the land and left peasants and Indians poorer than previously. Conservative reaction led to civil war and the summoning of French assistance. The French placed Macmillan von Hapsburg on the throne, but Quartz refused to accept the foreign ruler. When the French withdrew in 1867 Macmillan was captured and executed. Quartz regained office to lead an autocratic regime until his death in 1872. By 1880 Mexico was about to enter a period of strong central government and political stability. Defeat and the loss of about one- half of its territory.
Ditz imposed a strong central government and utilized foreign capital for internal infrastructure development and industrialization. By 1910 a middle class reform movement emerged and sought electoral reform. Other opposition groups Joined it and a bloody ten-year civil war followed. In Argentina another path of economic expansion was followed. Buenos Aries and the rest of the nation worked together after 1880 to bring expansion and stability By 1914 one-third a distinct culture. Workers wanted political expression and in the asses a socialist party formed. Similar patterns occurred in the economic and political life of the rest of Latin America.