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The History of Music

Music has been around for thousands and thousands of years. The caveman had originally started some type of sounds in which branched off into the music that we listen to today. This prehistoric music was started by the cavemen in order for them to express themselves, and the others who listened were affected in the same way that people are affected by music today. For example, if someone is upset they will listen to something that will get them into a better mood, perhaps something mellow or soft. If they are happy, they will listen to something that is more energetic, and so on.

After I interviewed our people–friends and family–I found out what type of music they listened to when they are upset, angry, or calm. Music touches peoples souls, and gets the best or worst out of them. My friend Kyle said, When I am in a bad mood I listen to basically rap because it gets me hyped up to where I want to dance. Rap lets me get into a better mood where I can forget the problem or what I was mad at before. He continues, No other music affects me as much as rap does because rappers put everything they have into their songs, but that is only my opinion.

Kyle has listened to rap since he was 13, and he ctually got me interested into it. I never liked rap until I started to hang out with him, and I am now starting to enjoy it because of its diversity that is involved in making the music. Each rapper has their own version of the world, and they express it through their music. -2- Not all rap music is good according to a Texas widow, who filed a lawsuit against Tupac Shakur. Her husband, a Texas state trooper, was allegedly shot to death by a man who stole a car.

In the mans car a Tupac tape was found in the cassette player, and Tupacs music was allegedly to blame (Damean). Some people tend to take music too seriously, and end up making mistakes, and they have to suffer the consequences like that Texas man. Those people, who take the music too seriously, are not stable, and the music brings out the worst of them. On the other hand, people like Kyle have no problem with some of the lyrics that some rappers incorporate into their music, and end living happily with society. I asked Kyles roommate, Tim what type music he listens to when he is in certain moods.

He said, Sometimes when I am homesick I listen to Frank Sinatra because my mother and ather listen to it all the time, so it reminds me of them. He is also a big rap fan, but not as much as Kyle. Tim can listen to anything at any time, for instance, he could listen to Notorious BIG one minute then listen to Marilyn Manson the next. He continues, If I have the urge to get pumped up then I need something that is crazy and wild to get me in that mood, like White Zombie or some sort of heavy music. There have also been lawsuits involved with such heavy metal like Marilyn Manson, Ozzy Osbourne, Slayer, and Judas Priest.

Marilyn Mansons music had been to blame for the uicide of 13 year-old boy from California. Another family from California sued the band Slayer because their lyrics inspired three teenage boys to rape and murder their daughter. Ozzy Osbourne and Judas Priest had lawsuits filed against them claiming their lyrics drove teens to attempt suicide in the late 80s, but the cases were won by the artists -3- (Demean). Once again people or teenagers took the music too seriously, and they ended making stupid mistakes by doing so.

These teenagers are allowed to listen to such music at an early age when they look up to certain entertainers like–Marilyn Manson. These teenagers need role models, and they end up looking the wrong way when they should be idolizing baseball and football players. They are at the crucial age when they are looking for a direction in life while trying to find themselves in the process. These teenagers think that they are supposed to listen to every word they sing, and they end up taking them seriously by acting upon those words.

The teenagers, who take it seriously and act on it, are insecure looking for someone to lead them through life, and end going to the wrong person for help when they should be going to an adult, or positive role model for help. I asked my mother what she listens to and what she feels when she listens to it. She said, I like to listen to classical music after a hard days work because it soothes me to a point where my mind is free from all of the stress that is involved in my job. My mom is an accountant where she works with numbers all day long, and that can get annoying by looking at the same sheet of numbers for hours at a time.

My mom recently began listening to country music, and I asked her why she recently switched. She responds, I needed a change from the regular music that I normally listen to. I like it because the lyrics of some songs are quite deep, and I could relate to some of the stories that are incorporated in the songs. The songs make me feel free, and I need that after a hard days work.  Throughout history all cultures have been influenced by music.

Since the Baroque period music has evolved and changed to meet the needs of the composers, listeners and of the culture as well. Ever since the monolithic chant of the previous millennia the western musical tradition een a mirror to the turmoil and the triumph in the European society. Influenced by religion, nationalism, geography, living conditions, imperialism, pragmatics, social mores, traditions, etc western music has evolved into a mighty being that still will endure for centuries. Before the Baroque era in music there were many forms of western music.

Most of this music was monophonic, sung in chant used mostly for religious purposes. During the previous millennia most music was sung in chant form with very little accompaniment, save a harp or a violin. In these times music was a simple art, sung by the people to praise the Lord. Eventually polyphonic music developed, first starting as monophonic chant sung in thirds and fifths, and later contrapuntal music was created. During this time the music notation system was standardized, originally a modified Greek system; music notation evolved into the notation that is used today.

Having the use of music notation set the foundation for Baroque music and for all music after that. In the late sixteenth century and early seventeenth century the Baroque style of music started in Italy. Italy, where the renaissance started, was able to create a new type of usic rich in feeling, but less intricate than much of the previous renaissance music that was centered towards the north (France and the area now occupied by the Netherlands). New ideas, like interplay between the various instruments in an orchestra, became prevalent, unlike the monophonic music of previous years.

As new instruments were incorporated into orchestras and compositions became increasingly more instrumental interplay had an increasing new role in the new baroque music. Claudio Monteverdi was a pioneer in the field of music at this time. His new operas contained many instances on interplay and sudden contrasts in feeling. As the seventeenth century progressed base parts in music became increasingly more important as the new basso continuo, idea formed. In the basso continuo soprano and alto voices in the music would be constructed on a platform of bass chords that gave meaning and structure to the music.

During the Baroque period new forms of presenting music were invented. The cantata and oratorio were created as new forms of vocal pieces. Both of these forms had repeating phrases that structured the pieces with minimal orchestral accompaniment. New forms of music were written in continuous contrapuntal form with no distinguishable movements, the most famous f which was the fantasia. Other forms such as the sonata had many homophonic and contrapuntal movements that contrasted witheach other. There were many pieces that were a theme and variations called a passacaglia.

The concerto was a solo instrument that played against an orchestra that differed on many musical, rhythmical and dynamic levels. The concerto was one of the most important forms of music that came out of the Baroque period. During the Baroque period there were many new influential composers. These composers included the Italian composers Alessandro Scarlatti, Arcangelo Corelli Domenico Scarlatti, and Antonio Vivaldi; the German composers Heinrich Schtz and Dietrich Buxtehude; the Italian-Frenchman Jean Baptiste Lully; the English composers Henry Purcell; and the French composer Jean Philippe Rameau.

Towards the end of the century, music became more fluid and romanticized. The ideas of contrasting movements gave way to pieces that more or less the same general musicality and character all the way through. Towards the end of the Baroque period, the great composer J. S. Bach shined and wrote some of the best Baroque pieces ever written, still Baroque in style, but giving way to the new classical period. During the mid eighteenth century there was a reaction to the Baroque style of music. People were tired of the ridged counterpoint that governed the baroque music.

Instead new composers chose to compose a new form of music that was happy and jubilant to mirror the times of great exploration and hope for European society. New music, like the rococo written by the French composer Franois Couperin showed the new jubilance in music. This new music was broken into several contrasting movements with different conversations and phrase. Music became more like a happy dance during this period. During the classical eriod tonality was brought to new heights. New complex harmonic textures were used that facilitated the use of new tones and chords within a key.

Like in the Baroque era, the concerto and sonata were used as art forms. In the Classical period the symphony and string quartet were added as new acceptable art forms. Most of these forms included three or four contrasting movements that ended in a finale that brought closure to the work, ending in the chord of the key the work was written in. As new instruments were developed, new arrangements were written to incorporate these instruments in new music. New compositions only for wind instruments were written at this time, a phenomena almost unheard of in previous times.

Towards the end of the classical period the focus of new composing centered on the Viennese classical school. Out of this new school of composing came such great composers as Franz Joseph Hayden and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. During this time opera lost a lot of its musical intensity and became a series of arias that showed off the singing talent of individual soloists, as opposed of that of the whole group. This tradition would later change with the advent of the Romantic period. The Romantic period started in Europe as a reaction to the jubilant happiness of the classical era.

During the nineteenth century there was a lot of tension in Europe as the forces of Nationalism and Militarism gripped Europe. There had been changes in Europe since the advent of Classicism. There were many mighty revolutions like the one that started in France in 1789 and spread. These revolutions made for the age of liberalism vs. conservatism. These events put a new fire into the nineteenth century and made for a new age. One of the major musical forms of the romantic period was the Opera. German composers such as Wagner wrote great operas with a growing emphasis on fluid orchestral parts.

New romantic operas were known to last over five hours with long, fluid and powerful lines. Many operas written by German composers and most of the operas written by Wagner instilled German pride and increased an ever growing feeling of nationalism and anti-Semitism. In France opera became more sentimental and simplistic. As in Germany the focus of the opera began to shift towards the choral and to the orchestra. Often the orchestras had large ensembles to show the grandeur of the age. Bizet and Faure were two of the more famous French opera composers.

In Italy the operas that were written were more marcatto and joyful. Composers such as Rossini used much rhythmic energy, using various staccato phrases to achieve a more buoyant opera. Later towards the end of the nineteenth century the composer Verdi made more of an orchestral significance and wrote opera that was more fluid. During the nineteenth century the symphony form changed a lot, teeter-tottering between musical styles. Many people were thinking should music have a theme? This was debated throughout the century. As the century progressed, the symphony became the predominant form of musical expression.

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Home » The History of Music

The History of Music

The History of Western Music Music has been around since the dawn of time, ever since man first inhabited this planet we have learned to communicate in ways other then conventional speaking. Different Cultures all have there own specific way of communicating through music. Music Is basically broken Into two specific groups Eastern Music and Western Music. Eastern music is mainly derived from the orient and India. While, Western music first emerged from Europe. Western music has developed in many ways since the middle ages through its form, sound, and message. The Middle Ages In 500 A. D. Western civilization began to emerge from the period known as “The Dark Ages,” a time in which many Invading forces ruled Europe and brought an end to the Roman Empire. For the next hundred year, the newly emerging Christian Church would soon govern Europe, administering Justice, initiating the Crusades against the East, creating universities, and for the most part dictating the destiny of music, art and literature. Pope Gregory I Is believed to have collected the music known as Gregorian Chant, which was the approved music of the Church. Later, Notre Dame in Paris was accredited, with the creation of a new kind of music called organ.

Which was created by much more melodic phrases then Gregorian Chant, organ was also the first type of music too utilize fourth and fifth Intervals, which would become one of the building blocks of modern musical theory. Music in the church had not changed much during this time as said by Charles Burner in A General History of Music Volume l, “Music in the church, however, appears to have undergone no other change at this time than In being applied In some parts of the A type popular music began to erupt and was sung all over Europe by the troubadours and trousers of France.

The troubadours and trousers played mainly lutes (a primitive guitar) and sung songs, which everyday people could appreciate and identify with. And It was during the middle Ages that western culture saw the arrival of the first great name In music, Gallinule De Macho. De Macho polyphonic style did not catch with many during the middle ages, but would later influence a flood of composers during the Renaissance. The Renaissance The Renaissance began in the year 1420 and ended in the year 1600. The Renaissance meaning rebirth was a time of great cultural awakening and a pinnacle time for the arts.

Sacred music began for the first time to break free of the confines of the Church, and a number of composers trained in the Netherlands mastered polyphonic music. One of the early masters of this Flemish style was Joaquin des Perez. De Prep’s use of multiple melody lines gave way too the idea of orchestral music which has been a staple in the world of music for hundreds of years. These polyphonic traditions reached a zenith through the works of Giovanni dad Palestinian, who perfected this type of orchestral scoring.

Secular music thrived during this period, and instrumental and dance music was performed at many social gatherings. 1 OFF ballad, the best known of which were composed by such masters as John Tolland, William Byrd, and Thomas Morley. The Baroque Age Named after the architectural style of the time, the Baroque period saw composers beginning to rebel against the styles that were prevalent during the Renaissance. Many monarchs employed composers at their courts, to compete with other countries. The greatest composer of the period, Johann Sebastian Bach, was an employed composer.

Bach and other of the great composers of the time were able to break new musical ground, and in so doing succeeded in creating an entirely new style of music. During the early part of the seventeenth century the genre of opera was first created by a group of composers in Florence, Italy, the earliest of these operatic masterpieces were composed by Claudio Monteverdi. The instrumental concerto became a customary part of the Baroque era, and found its strongest advocate in the works of the Venetian composer Antonio Vivaldi. Harpsichord music achieved new heights, due to the intricate works of such as

Domenici Scarlatti. Dances became formalized into instrumental suites and were composed by many composers of the era. Yet, vocal and choral music still reigned supreme during this age, and culminated in the operas of German-born composer George Frederic Handel. Who according too Alfred Einstein in A Short History of Music was the set up man for musical genius Ludwig Van Beethoven, ” Handel’s achievement is the preparation for what Beethoven afterwards did with the symphony; and it is on this eminence that these two masters, so utterly unlike, meet conquerors. “(69) The Classical Period

From 1750 to 1820,musicians moved away from the heavily ornamented styles of the Baroque age instead embraced a clean, and uncluttered style they reminiscent of Classical Greece. The new aristocracies were replacing monarchs and the church as patrons of music, and were demanding an impersonal, but tuneful and elegant music. Dances such as the minuet and the gavotte were fashioned in the forms of entertaining serenades and divertimento. At this time the Austrian capital of Vienna became the musical center of Europe, and works of the period are often referred to as being in the Viennese style.

Composers from all over Europe came to train in and around Vienna, and gradually they developed and formalized the standard musical forms that are prevalent today. European musical culture for the next several decades would spawn from this small area of Austria. Johann Stamina contributed greatly to the growth of the orchestra and developed the idea of the symphony. The Classical period reached its pinnacle with the masterful symphonies, sonatas, and string quartets by three great composers of the Viennese school: Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven.

Franz Joseph Haydn was accredited with perfecting the sonata in Charles Burner’s A General History of Music II in which he states, “While the first movement of the sonata developed its perfected form in Hayden hands” During the same period, the first voice of the Romantic Era rhea Romantic Era Composers of the Romantic Era broke new musical ground by adding a emotional depth to the prevailing classical forms. Throughout the nineteenth-century artists of all kinds became intent in expressing their emotions. The romantic artists were the first in history to give a name to their respective generation.

The earliest Romantic composers were all born within a short time span in the early years of the nineteenth century. These include the great German masters Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, FRRdrich Chopin, Hector Burlier, and the greatest pianist showman in history, the Hungarian composer Franz List. During the early nineteenth century, opera composers such as Carl Maria von Weber turned to German folk stories for the stories of their operas, later in the century; German opera was virtually monopolized by Richard Wagner.

During the nineteenth century, composers from non-Germanic entries began looking for ways in which they might express the musical sound of their respective homelands. Many of these composers turned to local history and legends as plots for their operas, and popular folk melodies and dance rhythms of their homelands as inspiration for their symphonies and instrumental music. The evolution of existing instruments, plus the invention of new ones, led to the expansion of the symphony orchestra.

Taking advantage of these new sounds and new instrumental combinations, the late Romantic composers of the nineteenth- century created rich and large symphonies, ballets, and concertos. Two of these late romantic composers were Johannes Brahms and Peter Illicit Tchaikovsky. rhea Twentieth-Century At the start of the twentieth-century many artists were searching for exciting and different modes of expression. Composers such as Arnold Schoenberg explored unusual and unorthodox harmonies and tonal schemes.

As said by Mark Preponderates in The Ambient Century, “At first there may seem to be no connection between Schoenberg and Ambient and electronic music. Schoenberg was responsible for taking German Romanticism and reeking it in two. By abandoning eye signatures and eventually caused a revolution which echoed down through the twentieth century” (00). Hungarian composer Bla BartГ¶k continued in the traditions of the romantic era and fused the music of Hungarian peasants with twentieth century forms. Avian-garden composers such as Edgar Averse explored the manipulation of rhythms rather than the usual melodic/harmonic schemes.

The symphony, became somewhat modified by this time, and attracted such great composers as Gustavo Mailer and Dimmit Stochastic, while Igor Stravinsky gave his full attention to Avian-garden and instrumental colors throughout his career. Many imposers throughout the twentieth-century experimented in new ways with traditional instruments, however many of the twentieth-century’s greatest composers, such as Giaconda Puccini and pianist/composer Sergei Rachmaninoff, remained true to the traditional forms of music history. The twentieth Century also produced many new genres of popular music such as, country, blues, Jazz, and rock and roll.

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