According to the website www. tutorvista. com, Prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes in their structure, packing, density, and arrangement of their genes on the chromosome. Differences in cellular structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes include the presence of mitochondria and chloroplasts, the cell wall, and the structure of chromosomal DNA. All cells share some common characteristics that make them living things and all organisms are composed of cells which are the basic fundamental unit of life. Also all living organisms are composed of one or many cells that are need in order for them to perform their individual functions.
A cell is a smallest unit of a life, which is needed to be able to control and perform several functions in all living organisms. The known difference between the eukaryote and the prokaryotes is that the prokaryotes are usually much smaller than eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells According to an unknown author, Eukaryotes can be single-celled or multi-celled. The organelles of the eukaryotic cells play a vital role in cell maintenance and other functions (Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell (n. d. )). Within eukaryotic cells there is an organelle called a mitochondrion.
In the plant cells, there is another type of organelle called plastids and another type that is the most famous of which is called chloroplast. An unknown author stated that Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, and the prokaryotic cells do not (Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell (n. d. )). An unknown author found that in the Eukaryotes, the mitochondria and chloroplasts perform various metabolic processes and are believed to have been derived from endosymbiotic bacteria (Eukaryotic Cell vs.
Prokaryotic Cell (n. d. )). These organelles generally consist of cell wall, plasma membrane, and nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts (plastids), endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, cytoplasm and chromosomes. The Eukaryotic cells are known to have a nucleus whereas the prokaryote cells do not. The purpose of the eukaryotes having the nucleus is to seize the DNA-related functions of the eukaryotic cell into a smaller chamber to have increased efficiency (Eukaryotic Cell vs Prokaryotic Cell (n. d. )).
The Eukaryotic DNA is linear and its DNA is complexed with proteins that are called histones (Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell (n. d. )). The eukaryotic cells are organized into chromosomes where they contain a certain number of chromosomes. Both of the cell types eukaryote and prokaryotic have many ribosomes, but the ribosomes of the eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex than those of the prokaryotic cell. The ribosomes of the eukaryote are simply made out of a special class of RNA molecules and a specific group of different proteins.
The ribosomes of a eukaryote are composed of five kinds of RNA and about eighty kinds of proteins. The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is filled with a large, complex collection of organelles, many of them enclosed in their own membranes. There is plenty more space inside a eukaryotic cell than it is within a prokaryotic cell, and many of these structures, like the nucleus, increase the efficiency of functions by confining them within smaller spaces within the cell.
An unknown author stated that the eukaryotic cell is clearly developed from the prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic (Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell (n. d. )). Some of the eukaryotes have satellite DNA structures called plasmids. Prokaryotes cells According to an unknown author, the Prokaryotes cells were the only form of life on Earth for millions of years until the eukaryotic cells came about during the process of evolution (Eukaryote vs. Prokaryote Cell (n. d. )). Prokaryotes include two groups: bacteria and another group called archaea (The Cell (n. d. )).
Prokaryotic cells have a cell envelope, which generally consists of a capsule, cell wall, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, cytoplasm region or nucleiod region, ribosome, plasmids, pili and flagella. The prokaryotic cells also contain only one circular DNA molecule and a varied assortment of much smaller circles of DNA that are called plasmids. The smaller, simpler prokaryotic cell requires fewer genes to operate than the eukaryotic cell. The Prokaryotes cells have a higher metabolic rate, a higher growth rate and thus having a shorter invention time compared to Eukaryotes.
A prokaryotic cell has no nucleus unlike the eukaryote cell. Prokaryotes genes lack introns and large non-coding regions between each gene (The Cell (n. d. )). The prokaryotic cell is small in size resulting in all the materials within the cell to be quite close together. The Prokaryotic cells are also known to not have DNA and DNA functions but biologists describe the central region of the prokaryotic cell as its nucleoid, because it is mainly where the DNA is located (The Cell (n. d. )).
Although the prokaryote cell contains a nucleoid, there is no physical border that is enclosing the nucleoid. Prokaryotes contain only a single loop of stable chromosomal DNA stored in an area typically called the nuclei. The Prokaryotic ribosomes are composed of only three kinds of RNA and about fifty kinds of protein. The prokaryotic cell also contains no membrane-bound organelles which are independent of the plasma membrane. Conclusion In conclusion, the eukaryote and prokaryotes cells both have DNA as their genetic material.
The eukaryote and prokaryote cells both have ribosome and have similar basic metabolism but the cells also have differences when it comes to their size and function. The eukaryotes have a nucleus and the prokaryote cells do not. The Eukaryote cells have membrane-bound organelles which allow them to exhibit much higher levels of intracellular division of labor and the prokaryotes do not. The Eukaryotic cells are about ten times the size of prokaryotic cells and the DNA of eukaryotes is much more complex and therefore much more extensive than the DNA of prokaryotes.
Prokaryotes have a cell wall composed of peptidoglycan, a single large polymer of amino acids and sugar. Many types of eukaryotic cells also have cell walls, but none made of peptidoglycan. The DNA of prokaryotes floats freely around the cell whereas the DNA of eukaryotes is held within its nucleus and associated with proteins. Eukaryotes undergo mitosis whereas the prokaryotes divide by simple cell division. Overall, both the eukaryote and the prokaryote cells have similarities but yet differences too.