Prenatal development is the period in development from conception to the onset of labor. Perinatal period is the period beginning about the seventh month of pregnancy and continuing until about four weeks after birth. Postnatal development is the period in development the follows directly after birth. The germinal stage is the stage lasting about ten -fourteen days following conception before the fertilized egg becomes implanted in the uterine wall.
The embryonic stage is the stage in which major biological organs and systems form. The fetal stage is the stage in which is marked by apid growth and preparation of body systems for functioning in the postnatal environment. Viability is the ability of the baby to survive outside the mother’s womb. The gestational age is the age of the fetus derived from onset of mother’s last menstrual period. The number of older mothers is on the rise in the U. S. as women postpone pregnancy to establish careers or for other reasons.
Healthy women older than thirty-five routinely deliver healthy infants just as other between the ages of twenty and thirty-five do. Teenagers, however, may be at a greater risk for delivering less healthy babies. Lack of prenatal care is a big reason. Diets, while pregnant, must be sufficient not only in number of calories but also with respect to the right amount of proteins, vitamins, and other nutrients. Stress also plays a big role in delivering a healthy baby.
Cultural beliefs about potentially harmful consequences of frightening or stressful events on fetal development are pervasive, and many societies encourage a calm atmosphere for pregnant women. The social support a pregnant woman receives from family and friends is an important factor that can lessen the consequences of stress uring pregnancy. Another reason is the complicated nutritional needs of teenagers. Teenage mothers give birth to as many as 500,000 babies in the U. S. every year.
It is suggested to women that are thirty-five or older undergo a test. Not in all cases does the woman have to be certain age. In some cases women must undergo an amniocentesis which is a small sampling of the fluid surrounding the developing fetus by inserting a needle and drawing fluid. This test is designed to diagnose fetal developmental disorders and/or genetic disorders. Ultrasonography is a method using sound wave reflections to obtain a representation the developing fetus. Support within the womb: the placenta.
The placenta is a support organ formed by the cells from both blastocyst and uterine lining; serves as exchange site for oxygen, nutrients and waste products. The umbilical cord is made up of blood vessels in which oxygen, nutrients and waste products are transported between placenta and embryo. As extra precaution the fetus is surrounded in a fluid-filled, transparent protective membrane known as the amniotic sac. Teratogen is any nvironmental agent that can cause deviations in prenatal development. Causing behavioral problems to death.
There are a number of diseases that can cause complications to a pregnancy. These are just a few of the many diseases that can cause harm: toxoplasmosis, hepatitis B, diabetes, and chlamydia. FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome) is a cluster of fetal abnormalities stemming from mother’s consumption of alcohol. This disease can be avoided. Most infant’s are born in a hospital, although there are some alternative birth settings such as, birthing centers (home-like setting). Statistics show that births directly supervised under a midwife, have less complications and distress.
Preparing for childbirth, prepared childbirth (also known is ouch), is procedures practiced during pregnancy and childbirth designed to minimize pain and reduce the need for medication during delivery. A cesarean birth is the delivery of a baby through a surgical incision in the woman’s abdomen and uterus. During the delivery, a fetal monitoring device is used to monitor fetal heartbeat. In the first stage of labor , the neck of the uterus, dilates and thins to open a passage through the birth canal. When the water is about to break, the baby’s head rests inside the cervix.
Then, transition, the baby shifts to the birth canal. After the resting in the birth canal, the baby is ready to be born. The head rotates sideways after it emerges. Thus, allowing the placenta to fall. Infants born with low-birth weight are in luck. Despite the immediate obstacles facing low-birth weight babies, many become normal children and adults. Newborns and infants display a number of states. A large part of their time in engaged in REM sleep, a state that may provide them with stimulation even when asleep.