Since physics actually means the physical world; Meta involves the non-material world, such as the mind and spiritual brief. According to Encarta Encyclopedia, “Metaphysics,” is a branch of philosophy that entails the “nature of ultimate reality” (p. 1) According to the Hummingbird N Company’s, “The Metaphysical Sciences,” the dictionary defines this as “A mental philosophy dealing with the nature and causes of being and knowing” (p. 1). H. J. Patton (1948), say’s in Immanuel Kent Ground Work of the Metaphysics of Morals, “so act that your will can regard itself at the same time universal law thought its maxim” (p. 34).
The interoperation was that the universal law was the human’s as rational beings. Therefore, act, as you will but at the same time having the rational beings at the maximum of self-value. Patton goes on to say the rational being is having universal law at is maxim, is giving ones self-supreme value (p. 35). Therefore, Patton feels making decisions should be based on maxims of the universal law (p. 108). Which means all decisions should be made rationally. According to “Socrates” in Encarta encyclopedia, he believed that his calling was to pursue philosophy, he pursued teaching and engaging in self-examination of ones soul (p. . Jacques Maritain (1964), Moral Philosophy, Socrates questioned traditional norms (p. 6).
He did not write any books and also did not establish a regular school of philosophy (Encarta, “Socrates” p. 1). Plato, one of his dispels, portrayed Socrates as “hiding behind an ironical profession of ignorance, known as Socrates irony (Encarta, “Socrates,” p. 1). According to Castell, Brochert, and Zucker, in Introduction to Modern Philosophy, Socrates would engaged in debates with people, playing devils advocate, trying to invoke people to think about religion and other none material aspect (p. . Socrates got in trouble for this and was sentenced to exile, but verses doing this he commit suicide.
The question is, if he did not commit suicide would he be as well known now. The actual term metaphysics was believed to originate in Rome around 70 BC, according to Encarta Encyclopedia (p. 1). This also states it that it started with Andronicus of Rhodes with his edition of Aristotle’s work (p. 1). Aristotle’s Metaphysics he questioned subjects on substance, causality, the nature of being and the existence of God (p. 1).
Aristotle argued in favor of a divine being (Encarta, “Aristotle,” p. 2). He described this the Prime Mover: “who is responsible of the unity and purposefulness of nature. God is perfect and therefore the aspiration of all things in the world, because all things desire the share of perfection” (Encarta, “Aristotle, “p. 2). Logic: Logic is a method of careful ways of thinking how can one think clearly, which the outcome is truth. According to the Encarta Encyclopedia, “Logic,” it is the science dealing with valid reasoning and or judgment (p. 1).
In the Encyclopedia Britannica, logic is the study of principle of logic (p. 447). Encarta goes on to say, the validity of an argument should be eminent from the truth of the conclusions. If the outcome of the premises is false, then the validity of the conclusion is false (p. 1). An example of this is “All mammals are four-footed animals; all people are mammals; therefore, all people are four-footed animal’s” this is a valid argument with a false conclusion (p. 1). The classical or traditional logic was Aristotelian logic (Encarta, “Logic,” p. 1).
This was a mathematical formula, syllogism argument is made up of statements of one of the following: “All A’s are B’s (universal affirmative), No A’s are B’s (universal negative), Some A’s are B’s (particular affirmative), or Some A’s are not B’s (particular negative)” (Encarta, “logic,” P. 1). Aristotle’s research method was as follows: first collect or observation of data, then create a hypothesis or an educated guess, then test your hypothesis which is done by collecting more data, then formulate a theory, test the theory, lastly conclusion or law of nature.
With this they broke all barriers except chemistry. George Boole and Augustus De Morgan open a new field to logic, the symbolic and modern logic (Encrata, “Logic,” p. 1). Ethics: Ethics is the study of principles. Encarta say’s it is the study of standards of human conduct or also known as morals (p. 1). According to Modern Philosophy, Ethics of the principles of goodness from badness and actions such as right and wrong (p. 647). Encarta also says it is considered the norms of human conduct (p. 1). Morals are steps laid out for daily behavior.
According to the The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, there are three types of Ethics: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. They describe metaethics as “investigates where our ethical principles come from, and what they mean. ” They have normative ethics “involves a more practical task, which is to arrive at moral standards that regulate right and wrong conduct. ” Than lastly they have applied ethics as “involves examining specific controversial issues, such as abortion, infanticide, animal rights, environmental concerns, homosexuality, capital punishment, or nuclear war.
Plato theories where an assumption that virtue was knowledge and that where taught through out (Encarta, “Plato,” p. 1). He argued, ” to know the good is to do the good” (“Plato,” p. 1). He concluded a “moral person is the truly happy person, and because individuals always desire their own happiness, they always desire to do the which is moral” (“Plato,” p. 1). Aesthetics: Aesthetics is the worldview; the question is what is beauty, meaning what is pleasing to ones eyes. Aesthetics is the perception of beauty and ugliness (Encarta, p. 1).
Modern Philosophy, says it is analyzes the human experience of beauty (p. 643). It deals with criticizes from particular works of art, analyzing their structure, meanings, and problems, comparing them with other works, and evaluating them (Encarta p. 1). Plato thought “who[mever] believed that reality consist of archetypes, or forms, beyond human sensation, which are the models for all things that exist in human experience” (Encarta, “Aesthetics” p. 1). Aristotle believed “one could be things as they ought to be, he wrote, and art partly completes what nature cannot bring to a finish” (“Aesthetics,” p. 2).
Immanuel Kant, felt “objects are judged beautiful he proposed, when they satisfy a disinterested desire: one does not involve personal interests or needs (“Aesthetics,” p. 2). Metaphysics, logic, ethics, and aesthesis are important to philosophy. Metaphysics is significant because is the study of truth in the none material world, Socrates questioned everything to find the truth. Logic is important because it is the study of thinking with the out come of truth. Ethics show human being’s having a moral standing. Aesthesis shows beauty. These are adding up to show how people are human and how they function.