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Electromagnetic Spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is made up of six different types of waves. Radio waves, Microwaves, Infrared waves, Visible light, Ultraviolet light, X-rays and Gamma rays. The radio waves are used to transmit radio and television signals. The infrared waves are used to tell temperature of areas. Visible light is all the colors that we can see. Ultraviolet light can help things grow but to much can cause diseases such as skin cancer. X-rays are used as a tool to find broken bones or take pitchers of our sun. Gamma rays are used in medical science but they are oftenly used to produce images of our universe.

If you would like to know more about the spectrum keep reading. The electromagnetic spectrum is the organization of six diferent wavelengths. Each having their own use. The spectrum in order from longest to shortest wavelengths is: Radio waves, Microwaves, Infrared waves, Visible light, Ultraviolet light, X-rays and Gamma rays. The most familiar forms of the spectrum are radio waves and light waves. The reason for that is, that we listen to the radio or use its waves more often than we think. For instance cell phones work off of radio waves.

Light waves are used more often than we think because with out light we ouldent posibly be able to see color on any thing, or we wouldent have photosynthisis which sunlight is used for. The term spectrum refers to light in general or the whole range of electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic field was found in the 19th centurie. It was founded by James Clerk MAXWELL of Scotland and published in 1865. The field is described in two quantities the electric component E and the magnetic component B and both charge in space and time. This meaning electric / magnetic / spectrum.

Radio waves are used to transmit radio and television signals. Radio waves can send sounds at the speed of light. The range of radio waves can be less than a centimeter to tens or even hundredths of meters. Radio waves are produced by coherent motion of electrons such as the antenna of a radio transmitter. Coherent motion is the focused pattern of the waves, in this case. The radio waves are also produced by charged particles orbiting in magnetic fields. As you already know we have FM and AM radio waves. Well an FM radio station at 100 on the radio dial (100 megahertz) would have a wavelength of about 400 meters.

A radio wave can also be used to create images such as portable TVs. Radio waves with avelengths of a few centimeters can be transmitted from a satellite or airplane antenna. The reflected waves can be used to form an image of the ground in complete darkness or through clouds. This would be how spy satellites work or how we take pictures of the planets surface. Following after radio waves would be the magnificent microwave. The microwave makes up a very small part of the spectrum although it is widely used throughout house holds across the world. Microwaves range from a few centimeters to 0. 1 cm. The wave is used to heat your food.

It heats your food by bouncing back and fourth across the microwave walls. In the process it causes molecules (tiny particles) to vibrate and create friction which in turn creates heat. Infrared is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum that extends from the visible region to about one millimeter (in wavelength) Infrared waves include thermal radiation. For example hot or burning charcoal may not give off light but it does send out radiation its just felt as heat. The infrared radiation is or can be measured using detectors . Infrared has many applications in medicine or finding heat leaks in houses.

This is what gives us the ability to see in the dark with infrared oggles to tell us what is putting off heat . It is also used in space science exploration to tell us the climate of other planets or even the heat of the sun. The rainbow of colors we know as visible light is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths. A wavelength is the distance between consecutive peaks of consecutive valleys in wave form. The reason we can see all the colors we do is simple. The light of the world reflects off the objects giving it color. Such as when it is sunny out every thing the sun hits is more visible and we can see its color.

The oon works the same way it’s just less light making it harder to see the color. Now Im a scuba diver and when I go under water the last color I see is blue. The color of the water once under water I can no longer see color except for what little portion of the sun that peers down through the water giving every thing a grayish color. But when I bring a dive light down with me I can actually see every thing’s color. Thats why swim wear is reflective so you can see it under the water or not. Ultraviolet radiation has a range of wavelengths from 400 billionths of a meter to about 10 billionths of a meter.

Small amounts of ultraviolet radiation can help us do things such as helping the plants grow through the process of photosynthesis, but larger doses can cause diseases, like skin cancer. Ultraviolet wavelengths are used periodically throughout astronomical observatories, and some remote sensing. Observations of the earth are also concerned with the measurement of the ozone layer. The reason for that is that if we didnt have the ozone layer all of the Suns ultraviolet radiation would rain down giving us skin cancer and destroying all vegetation.

X-rays are high energy waves which have great penetration power They are used in medical science, and in inspecting welds. X-ray images of our sun can give us important clues to solar flares and other changes on our sun that can effect space weather. The wavelengths from x-rays are about 10 billionths of a meter to about 10 trillionths of a meter. X-rays are produced when atoms are bombarded by high energy electrons. Gamma rays behave like x-rays of very short wavelengths. They have wavelengths of less than about 10 trillionths of a meter which makes them more penetrating than an x-ray . These rays are generated in radioactive atoms and in nuclear explosions.

Gamma rays are used in many medical applications such as taking pictures of bone structure slightly deeper than an x-ray would go. Gamma rays can also produce images of our universe giving us valuable information on the life and death of stares or any other violent process in the universe. All the electromagnetic waves need no material for transmission. There for radio waves can travel through intercellular space from the stars or planets to Earth regardless of their frequency and wavelength. Electromagnetic waves travel at a speed of 299,792 km (186,282 mi. ) Per second in a vacuum.

Wavelengths and their frequency are important in determining their heating effect, visibility, penetration. The Near-Earth Asteroid rendezvous mission. Is going out to study the Asteroids around Earth. This space craft will be using tools from the electromagnetic spectrum. The two tools NEAR will be using are x-rays and gamma rays. The mission will measure and map the abundance of various elements of the surface of Eros. Since the suns rays bounce off of Eros we will be studying it first. The rays cause Eros to give off different elements. That our x-rays will be able to study.

The x-rays will help study the suns beam on to Eros telling us what elements are on it. They will also be able to take clear images of Eros surface. The Gamma rays will be used to study the elements 10 to 20 cm below the surface of Eros. The gamma ray dose this by beaming down to the surface of Eros getting absorbed in to the material allowing it to reach a certain point before it is completely absorbed. And since a gamma ray is more penetrating than an X-ray it would be able to reach farther down into the surface of Eros before it is completely absorbed.

This mission will give us a valuable dge on the portion of the elements on asteroids’ comets or meteors around Earths orbit. This is one classic example of the uses of the electromagnetic spectrum. When you go scuba diving under water you lose half the colors that you would normally see above water. All of the Warmer colors such as the reds’ oranges and yellows are absorbed by the water, except for the tropical waters which of course are warmer causing the water to be less dense making it easier to see.. As you descend to greater depths all you can see are the blues and grays.

Now when you bring your dive light down ith you you’re able to see all the different colors again. Their for visible light comes from the Sun, or from extremely powerful lights but the lesser the wattage the less color it will show. When the Sun shines on your shirt part of its ray is absorbed giving it a color. That is how color is brought into our world. Earlier in the report cell phones were mentioned and how they were related to the spectrum. Now you will learn how and maybe some new technology from Global Communications. Cell phones operate on high frequency radio technology and ultra-sophisticated phone switching evices.

Cell phones bounce off of satellites scattered in space and on Earth. Allowing your cell phone to reach great distances so you can talk to that special someone, whether you are caught in a traffic jam or your plane flight is delayed. You will be able to call them to let them know that you will be running late. No matter what you use it for its about to take another step to make it even easier for you to use. Just imagine being able to put a cell phone in your pocket or having a cell phone that can be voice activated. That means hands free no more accidentally hitting hat speed dial to your mother in law.

Just think of all the possibilities that you have coming your way in global communications. Up to the twentieth century, reality was everything humans could touch, smell, see and hear. Since the initial publication of the chart of the electromagnetic spectrum… humans have learned that what they can touch, smell, see, and here is less than one-millionth of reality. Ninety-nine percent of all that is going to affect our tomorrows is developed by humans using instruments and working in ranges of reality that are nonhumanly sensible.

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