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Chemical Messenger Research Paper

Describe the four classes of chemical messengers. The human body contains chemical messengers. There are four groups of chemical messengers within the human body. Each chemical messenger are unique in their own way, having different functions throughout the body. The four groups are as follows in no specific order: Autocrine, paracrine, neurotransmitter, and endocrine. Neurotransmitter chemical messengers are let out by neurons where they are deposited into the synaptic cleft.

Neurotransmitter chemical messenger travel short distance’s activating adjoining cells by triggering nearby cells. When my daughter gets on the stage to play her instrument she becomes nervous and afraid. As she states in her words she shakes like a Chihuahua as a result of her fear her body’s natural response is to release epinephrine, is released in the body and then adrenaline start flowing. Epinephrine is one example of a neurotransmitter chemical messenger. Autocrine chemical messengers, motivates the cell in which the autocrine chemical messenger original came from.

An example of Autocrine chemical messenger would be when one gets sinus infection and labs are drawn the doctor may see an increase in white blood cells. White blood cells increase during infection as a natural defense to fight off the infection. Paracrine chemical messengers act close on neighboring cells. Paracrine chemical messengers are pushed by one cell into the extracellular fluid. Neighboring cells are affected once the paracrine chemical messengers are released into the extracellular fluid. An example of paracrine chemical messengers would be histamine.

My child had an allergic reaction to sun screen and broke out in hives as a result to the reaction the body release histamine during the reaction causing dilation of the blood vessels. The last of the four chemical messengers this writer will attempt to explain is the endocrine chemical messenger. Endocrine chemical messengers released into ones blood stream by means of particular glands and cells. Endocrine chemical messengers flow through the circulation to target cells. Endocrine chemical messengers represent the endocrine system.

Describe and give an example of chronic, acute, and episodic patterns of hormone secretions. Chronic hormone secretion causes continuous levels of hormones in the blood over an extended period of time. An example of chronic hormone secretion would be TSH. TSH is in everyone’s body. IF TSH levels in one’s body becomes out of normal range, this can cause thyroid disorders. Acute hormone secretion occurs when there is a disturbance in the hormone’s concentration and levels differentiate with stimulation. Example of acute hormone secretion would be the release of epinephrine in the body.

For example, if a person is afraid of lightning and they are caught in a lightning storm the body release epinephrine in result of fear. Episodic hormone secretion is when hormones are distributed occurs when hormones are introduced into the body at regular times and absorptions. An example of episodic hormone secretion would be the body’s secretion of insulin by the pancreas for leveling blood sugar levels in ones bloodstream. For example if a person skips meals and becomes hypoglycemic the body will secrete insulin to bring blood sugars back to normal.

What characteristics of a hormone receptor make it specific for one type of hormone? Each cell has a specific set of characteristics, meaning the physical shape and chemical makeup of each hormone correlates to a specific hormone receptor. In order for a hormone receptor to correlate and attach with a hormone it must be made up of the same physical shape and chemical makeup, for example, anti-diuretic hormones can only bind with anti-diuretic hormone receptors. List 10 regulatory functions of the endocrine system. Metabolism is a regulatory function of the endocrine system.

Metabolism controls the rate of energy production. Some individual can eat anything and not gain an ounce due to high metabolism. Control of food intake and digestion. This is where food is eaten and absorbed into the body is broken down to be used throughout the body for nutrition Tissue development. Tissue development is impacted by the endocrine system. The endocrine system influences the development of tissues, such as those of the nervous system. Regulation of blood by lon levels is also a regulatory function of the endocrine system Another function of the endocrine system is water balance.

Fluid balance is controlled in the body to create balance. One example of this is, if one drink a lot of fluids one may have an increase in voiding allow the body to rid of excess fluid. A swimmers heart rate and blood pressure increases during a race. The endocrine sytem helps in preparation of the body by regulation of the Blood pressure and pulse. Control of blood glucose and other nutrients. The endocrine system regulates the levels of glucose and other nutrients in the blood. The creation of ovaries in females and testes in males and control of their function is regulated by the endocrine system.

In females during mistral bleeding or after child birth the uterus contracts so that a female does not hemorrhage during her menses or after child birth the endocrine system control these contractions. Prolactin stimulates the production of breast milk the release of milk is controlled by the endocrine system without this control women would continuously lactate. The function of the immune system is to fight of infection or build a immunity against something, for examples chickenpox. Without immune cells a person would have no immunity. The endocrine system job is to Immune system function.

The endocrine system help regulate the production of immune cells. List the releasing and inhibiting hormones that are produced and released from hypothalamic neurons. The following is a list of inhibiting and releasing hormones created and secreted by hypothalamic neurons. Prolactin-releasing hormone and prolactin-inhibiting hormone. Growth hormone-releasing hormone, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Corticotropinreleasing hormone, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, growth hormone-inhibiting hormone. What are the target tissues of thyroid hormones? How do thyroid hormones alter the activities of their target tissues?

What effects are produced? Almost all cells of the human body are target by thyroid hormones. Activity on targeted tissues can be altered by blood levels, meaning onset, durations and half-life of the hormone. Thyroid hormones can affect an individual by means of affecting how one metabolizes. For example if ones metabolism decreases they may gain more weight. What is Graves Disease – gland, hormones, and symptoms. List one effect on six body systems. Graves disease occurs in a reposne to ones body attacking the thyroid. In result of the attack an over production of tsh is released into the body.

An individual with graves’ disease may stat to notice an increase in hert rate or irregularity, hair loss, increased anxiety, insominia, sensitivity to hot tempatures, goiter, and mood swings. Graves disease can effect several sytems in the body. The heart is effected causing increased heart rate and ireegular heart rate. Dermtolgical effects such as hair loss. Metabloic affects such as weight loss regardless of calorie intake. Respiratory affects such as shotness of breth ,may be noted. Opthmalogical affects such as eye pain may be noticed. Psychological affects can also be noticed such as mood swings, and irrtiabily.

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