The documentary “13th” explores the history of race and racism in the United States. It examines how black people have been discriminated against and oppressed throughout American history. The film also discusses the mass incarceration of black people in the United States.
The documentary begins with a brief history of slavery in America. It then covers the Jim Crow era, when black people were subjected to segregation and discrimination. The film also discusses the Civil Rights Movement, which aimed to end racial discrimination.
The documentary then turns to the present day, discussing how black people are still disproportionately incarcerated in the United States. The film argues that this is due to systemic racism within the criminal justice system.
Overall, the documentary “13th” provides a comprehensive history of race and racism in America. It is an important film for anyone wanting to learn more about the issue.
In her movie 13th, Ava DuVernay examines the injustice of mass incarceration and violence perpetrated by the Criminal Justice system in the United States. She sets the tone with a staggering statistic: a nation with just 5% of the world’s population has 25% of all of humanity’s prisoners. To illustrate their movement into widespread imprisonment, DuVernay builds a timeline in her documentary.
The film argues that the 13th amendment, which abolished slavery, did not free black people in America, but instead resulted in their mass incarceration.
African Americans have always been disproportionately represented in the prison system. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, black people were incarcerated at four times the rate of white people. Even though black and white crime rates were similar, black people were more likely to be arrested and given longer sentences. This trend has continued into the present day. In 2010, black people made up thirteen percent of the US population but thirty-seven percent of the prison population.
There are a number of reasons for this disparity. One is that racism is still prevalent in America and it manifests itself in the criminal justice system. Police officers are more likely to stop and search black people than white people, even though studies have shown that black and white people use drugs at similar rates. Black people are also more likely to be charged with drug crimes than white people, even though they are not more likely to sell or use drugs.
Another reason for the disparity is that poor black communities are policed more heavily than wealthy white communities. This is because police departments are funded by property taxes, so areas with higher property values can afford to pay for more police officers.
This means that poor black communities are less likely to have adequate policing, which can lead to increased crime rates. In addition, poor black communities are more likely to be located in areas with high crime rates, which can also lead to increased contact with the criminal justice system.
The film 13th argues that the mass incarceration of black people is a form of slavery. This is because black people are more likely to be incarcerated than any other group in America. In addition, once they are incarcerated, they are more likely to be sentenced to longer prison terms than white people. They are also more likely to be placed in solitary confinement and to be given death sentences.
The film 13th makes a compelling argument that the mass incarceration of black people is a form of racism and that it is a result of the 13th amendment. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed in America.
DuVernay begins her film where black men and women were supposed to be liberated at the end of slavery. According to Khalil Muhammad, four million people who were formerly enslaved and a vital component of the southern economy are no longer slaves. The United States came up with what is known as the Black Codes in order to preserve the southern economic system. The Black Codes prohibited African Americans from doing things like owning property, voting, and obtaining an education.
The Black Codes led to something called the Jim Crow Laws. The Jim Crow Laws were a set of laws that enforced racial segregation in the southern United States. These laws prevented black people from using the same public facilities as white people, such as schools, restaurants, and restrooms.
In order to keep black people from voting, literacy tests and poll taxes were put in place. If a black person could not pass the literacy test or pay the poll tax, they could not vote.
The Ku Klux Klan was also formed during this time. The Ku Klux Klan was a white supremacist group that terrorized black people who tried to vote or assert their rights in any way. They would often use violence and intimidation to keep black people from voting or exercising their rights.
The Civil Rights Movement was a time when black people began to fight back against the discrimination and violence they were facing. Some of the most famous leaders of the Civil Rights Movement were Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, and Malcolm X.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed during this time. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in employment practices and public accommodations.
Despite the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, black people were still facing discrimination and violence. In 1965, a voting rights march from Selma to Montgomery was met with violence by the police. This event, which came to be known as “Bloody Sunday”, was televised and led to public outrage. As a result of the public outrage, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 banned literacy tests and poll taxes and provided federal oversight of elections in order to prevent voter discrimination.
The Civil Rights Movement led to some progress for black people, but DuVernay argues that the system is still rigged against them. Mass incarceration is one example of this. Although black people make up only 13% of the population, they make up 40% of the prison population.
There are a number of factors that contribute to the high rate of black incarceration. One factor is the war on drugs. The war on drugs is a government policy that was started in the 1970s under President Nixon. The goal of the war on drugs was to reduce drug use in the United States. However, this policy disproportionately targeted black and Latino communities.
Another factor that contributes to the high rate of black incarceration is mandatory minimum sentencing. Mandatory minimum sentencing is a type of sentencing that requires offenders to serve a minimum amount of time in prison, regardless of the circumstances of their crime.
The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 increased mandatory minimum sentencing for drug offenses. This act was passed during the Reagan administration, which was known for its tough on crime policies. The increase in mandatory minimum sentencing led to a dramatic increase in the prison population.
Today, there are a number of organizations that are working to reform the criminal justice system and reduce mass incarceration. One organization is the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). The ACLU is a non-profit organization that works to protect the civil liberties of all people in the United States. Another organization is the NAACP Legal Defense Fund (LDF). The LDF is the legal arm of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The LDF works to ensure equality and justice for black people in America.
The documentary “13th” is a powerful and eye-opening look at the issue of mass incarceration in the United States. DuVernay does an excellent job of explaining the history of race in America and how it has led to the high rate of black incarceration that we see today. I would recommend this documentary to anyone who wants to learn more about this issue.