Confucianism appealed to upper-class who were interested in more elaborate spiritual lives 3. Combined the beliefs of the Chinese in nature’s harmony with a belief in nature’s mystery 4. It was furthered by Laszlo who stressed that nature was divine and directed all life 5. Ivied frugally; politics and learning were irrelevant to it 6. It was often Joined with beliefs from other religions and was generally favored by rulers because it posed no political threat D. Literature, Art, and Science 1 . Set of 5 classics were written and used as a basis for civil service examinations; they included treatises, speeches, and political materials 2. Literary tradition developed from the 5 classics 3. The ability to learn and recite poetry became an important mark of an educated Chinese 4. The literary traditions enforced Confucian beliefs 5. Chinese Art was decorative and full of detail I. It reflected the details of Chinese writing it. ) calligraphy was an important art form iii. ) the Great Wall Of China was the only really remarkable piece of architecture 6.
Scientific studies were practical and not so much theorizing anymore I. ) Chinese Astronomers had developed a calendar by 444 BCC it. ) they calculated the movements of Jupiter and Saturn and observed sunspots- much ahead of English scientists 7. Mathematics were also starting to made more practical; it led to furthering of acoustics V. Economy and Society A. The Confucian Social System 1 . There were three main social levels: the highest was the aristocrats, educated restaurants or mandarins; the second highest was the laboring class, the peasants and artisans; last was the “mean” people or the people without meaningful skills. . The mean people were punished more harshly than the other groups were for crimes B. Trade and Technology 1 . The trade focused on luxury items for the upper-class 2. There was also food exchange 3. Copper coins started to circulate 4. Technology improved vastly, especially in agriculture, for the Chinese I. ) plows were introduced it. ) collars for animals were made so that the animals pulling the plow or cart wouldn’t choke iii. Pulleys and winding gears for mining iv. ) paper was also invented which allowed the people to more easily record information C.
Gender and Family Life 1 . Similar to the structure in other agricultural civilizations; emphasized the importance of the male role 2. Parents could “do no wrong” and punish their children however they saw fit (even killing) 3. Chinese popular culture stressed having emotions in check 4. Women had defined roles I. ) they could gain power if their sons married it. ) their roles were considered subordinate 5. Children also had roles, boys higher than girls, the oldest boy inherits what his arenas leave VI. How Chinese Civilization Fits Together A.
Social and Cultural Links to Politics 1 . Confucianism led to new laws and new ideas for the Chinese 2. They had the same appreciation for arts and literature 3. The government encouraged both industry and agriculture B. Complexities in Classical China 1 . There are divisions between the different belief systems like Confucianism and Taoism 2. They essentially hated the people who didn’t share their beliefs 3. People believed in human goodness, but harsh punishment for wrongdoings 4. However, in the end, everyone believed in tight control