Through the course of history, American expansionist incentives have shifted from withstanding foreign influence, to taking on a erect role in instituting democratic control where it deems necessary, most notably American control in the Philippines. Throughout American expansionism, an emphasis on divine right has encouraged the spread Of American influence. This principle revolutionized from expansion westward to expanding across bodies of water.
Under this thought, Americans were confident that God’s given right was to expand and evangelize Christianity. As Document B reads: “It seems to me that God, with infinite wisdom and skill, is training the Anglo-Saxon race for an hour sure to mom in the world’s future… With all the majesty of numbers and might of wealth behind it – the representative, of the largest liberty, the purest Christianity, the highest civilization… Will spread itself over the earth…
And can anyone doubt that the result of this competition of races will be the ‘survival of the fittest? ” Through Josiah Strong’s Our Country: It’s Possible Future and Its Present Crisis (Document B), an element of superiority presents itself regarding the Anglo-Saxon American race as the highest, most pure, form Of violation in a reflection of “Social Darwinism” and the survival of only the fittest, most prosperous civilization. Senator Albert J. Beverage’s speech emphasizes this confidence reading, “…
We will not renounce our part in the mission of our race, trustee, under God, of the civilization of the world (Document E). ” , ultimately arguing the American population as trustees under God to expand in order to become the “civilization of the world” (Document E). In the American ideal of the New Manifest Destiny, America has departed from early expansionist ideals of growing independent to reign influence while expanded within the borders of the sea, to ideals of establishing democratic control across bodies of water, particularly the Philippines.
Nevertheless, late 19th and early 20th century American expansion presents as a continuation of early American expansion through the motivation of manifest destiny, the pursuit of economic growth, and rising thought of American racial supremacy. Throughout the late 19th and early 20th century, American expansion was reasoned to help the American economy grow and prosper. This idea holds similar to early American expansion in the purchase Of Louisiana and Alaska to increase American influence and thrive off of productive resources.
In the late 19th century, America’s appropriation of the Philippines created an opportunity for furthering American influence and trade in the orient. As Senator Albert J. Beverage’s speech reads, “The Philippines are ours forever… And just beyond the Philippines are China’s illimitable markets (Document E). ” In acquiring the Philippines, the American economy would benefit from spreading its influence to produce trade with countries of Asia.
This proved effective in guards to America’s “Open Door” policy with China, which demonstrated America’s growing influence and dominance in international economic affairs. As seen in the cartoon of “American Diplomacy’ (document G), Uncle Sam boldly holds the key to China’s “Open Door”, and ultimately enticing Chinese- American trade agreements, while emphasizing the American economic power of trade over other countries into China.
In this respect, early American expansion displays a departure to late 19th and early 20th century expansion due to American efforts in dominating trade with China looking to build elation’s in foreign affairs, as opposed to early expansion ideals of non- foreign interference and expansion; yet holds similar in regards to the expansionist motivation of manifest destiny, economic growth, and an evolving notion of American racial supremacy. American expansion during the 19th and 20th century was a time during which nationalism evoked a sense of American superiority.
This growing sense of nationalism was spurred by belief that the American race held the best traits for civilization, reflecting “Social Darwinism” and the idea of the survival of the fittest. Thriving off this notion, American expansionists saw other nations, particularly the Philippines, as unable to govern themselves, therefore needing to be taken control of to “civilize” Filipino savages. This idea proves similar to early expansionists in their efforts to “civilize” Native American’s.
President Roosevelt December 6th message to Congress efficaciously demonstrates the American view towards any country not acting in an acceptable manner, politically or socially as Document F reads, “If a nation shows that it knows how to act with reasonable efficiency and decency in social and political matter, it if keeps order and pay its obligations, it need no interference from the Unites States (Document Late 1 9th and early 20th century views on the debate of Philippine expansion were derived from the idea of Filipinos being unable to govern themselves, comparable to that of early expansionist attitude towards Native Americans.
For this reason, Americans gave motivation to forced democratic control in the Philippines. Early expansionist ideals shifted from wanting to be independent of foreign influence, to ideals of expanding across borders and influencing nations less palpable to develop democracy, now acting as an “international police power” (Document F). Even with this shift, late 19th and early 20th century expansion held similar to early American expansionist incentives of manifest destiny, progress in America’s economy, and an evolving notion Of American racial dominance.
While early expansion holds similarities with that of the turn of the 19th century, a significant difference presents itself. Early American expansionism was done within the limits of United States sea borders, as Americans were anxious for independence from Britain. Late 19th to early 20th century expansion led to American influence across bodies of water, taking on a new role as an “international police power” (Document F) in foreign affairs, particularly in the direct democratic control of the Philippines.
While this proves true, other components of growth in the turn of the 19th century along with early expansionism are analogous. Manifest destiny, as one, encouraged expansion as a god given responsibility, reflecting both early American expansion Westward, along with that of the Philippines in the turn of the 1 9th century. A belief in the progress of the American economy encouraged the expansion of Louisiana for its resources, while the Philippines held large international trade benefits into China.