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The novel A Clockwork Orange

The new American edition of the novel A Clockwork Orange features a final chapter that was omitted from the original American edition against the author’s preference. Anthony Burgess, the novel’s author, provided for the new edition an introduction to explain not only the significance of the twenty-first chapter but also the purpose of the entire book, which was the fundamental importance of moral choice. Burgess states that the twenty-first chapter was intended to show the maturation or moral progress of the youthful protagonist, Alex.

The omission of the twenty-first chapter resulted, according to Burgess, in the reduction of the novel from fiction to fable, something untrue to life. Human beings change, and Burgess wanted his protagonist to mature rather than stay in adolescent aggression. The twenty-first chapter shows this change, and the chapter is important because it includes Alex’s mature assessment of his own adolescence and shows the importance of maturity to moral freedom which is Burgess’s main point. Burgess has presented his definition of moral freedom in both his introduction and in his novel.

Burgess’s definition of moral freedom as the ability to perform both good and evil is presented by implication in his discussion of the first kind of clockwork orange. In his introduction, he states that if one “can only perform good or only perform evil, then he is a clockwork orange – meaning that he has the appearance of an organism lovely with color and juice but is in fact only a clockwork toy to be wound up by God or the Devil or (since this is increasingly replacing both) the Almighty State. ” Burgess goes on to say, “It is as inhuman to be totally good as it is to be totally evil.

The important thing is moral choice. Evil has to exist along with good, in order that moral choice may operate. ” This hypothetical type of clockwork orange nowhere appears in the novel because Alex is neither totally good nor totally evil but a mixture of both. This remains true even after Alex’s conditioning by the Government. It is true that the Government tries to make Alex totally good through conditioning; however, in the last chapter you can see that since it is a coerced goodness, against Alex’s will, total goodness is not achieved.

Although Burgess considers one kind of clockwork orange inhuman, he does allow for another kind of clockwork orange that is human. Burgess’s little Alex is a clockwork orange until he reaches maturity in the twenty-first chapter. Stanley Hyman, a literary critic, provided an afterward for the original American edition of A Clockwork Orange. In it he states that “Alex always was a clockwork orange, a machine for mechanical violence far below the level of choice… “.

One must remember that this after word was written for an edition in which the important twenty-first chapter was missing. In that chapter, Alex himself states: Youth must go, ah yes. But youth is only being in a way like it might be an animal. No, it is not just like being an animal so much as being like one of these malenky toys you viddy being sold in the streets, like little chellovecks made out of tin and with a spring inside and then a winding handle on the outside and you wind it up grr grr grr and off it itties, like walking, O my brothers.

But it itties in a straight line and bangs straight into things bang bang and it cannot help what it is doing. Being young is like being like one of these malenky machines. Alex goes on to apply this condition to his own hypothetical son and says that even if he explained this condition to him, he wouldn’t understand or want to understand. He would probably end up killing somebody and Alex wouldn’t be able to stop him any more than he would be able to stop his own son.

And this repetition of youthful, clockwork aggression would continue until the end of the world. This repetition is compared to someone, like God, continuously turning an orange in his hands. Also, for the perceptive reader, it is compared to the repetition of the phrase “what’s it going to be then, eh? ” which begins the first chapter of each part until Alex states his intention of finding a wife to mother his son which is “like a new chapter beginning”. He then concludes, “That’s what it’s going to be then, brothers, as I come to the like end of this tale.

Therefore the last chapter shows that Alex has grown up and become morally responsible. He is no longer a human clockwork orange. Personally I agree with the author in that the last chapter is crucial to understanding the whole point of the novel. Without the last chapter the novels theme changes almost interlay. The last chapter shows that the coerced goodness brought on by the government did not fully work and that it is not possible to make someone totally good trough conditioning, you will always have moral choice.

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Home » A Clockwork Orange » The novel A Clockwork Orange

The novel, A Clockwork Orange

Moral freedom is one of the most if not the most important of any freedoms available to humans. Moral freedom is the ability to either choose to perform good or bad deeds or both. Totalitarian governments take away ones individual choice and thus, suppress and suffocate the soul. The setting in A Clockwork Orange is a general parallax to a totalitarian and oppressive government. Alex, the main character, is the representative of the common man, and his struggle in this type of government.

In the novel, A Clockwork Orange, Anthony Burgess suggests that the importance of moral freedom be stressed even for criminals condemned by society. There was me, that is Alex, and my three droogs, that is Pete, Georgie, and Dim. and we sat in the Korova milk bar making up our rassadooks what do with the evening(1. 1; ch. 1), this was a typical night of a nadsat or teenager. A bunch of hoodlums, going around committing acts of violence and crime, for they have moral freedom; which they choose to do bad. First they assault a young man in an alley, and then they go to this authors house, and vandalize it and rape his wife.

But while at this house, they come across a book called A Clockwork Orange, and Alex reads about it: The attempt to impose upon man, a creature of growth and capable of sweetness, to ooze juicily at the last round the bearded lips of God, to attempt to impose, I say, laws and conditions appropriate to a mechanical creation(1. 21; ch. 2), at which he ironically laughs and tears up. After an eventful night like that, Alex goes home, Where I lived was with my dadda and mum in the flats of Municipal Flatblock 18A, between Kingsley Avenue and Wilsonway(1. 31; ch. 3).

There he goes to his room, and turns on his stereo and his good side comes alive. His deep love for classical music like Mozart, Beethoven, and G. F. Handel, can be seen clearly. In the morning he decides not to go to school, and he ends up violently raping two devotchkas, again displaying his moral freedom to be bad. That same night, they try to rob an old psitsa that has a hundred cats living with her. Alex ends up killing the old lady, but he gets caught by the millicents and will be tried as an adult. While in court, Alex promotes his innocence and blames his companions. Where are the others?

Where are my stinking traitorous droogs? One of my cursed grazhny bratties chained me on the glazzies. Get them before they get away. It was their idea, brothers. They like forced me to do it(1. 65; ch. 6). His pleas are futile as he gets sent away to the Staja, also known as a penitentiary. From that point on, Alex feels oppressed by the small cells full of older criminals. Although these brutal situations fit Alex, he realizes that only repentance and good behavior in the eyes of the officials can release him from the jaws of justice. So in order to be viewed as a reforming criminal Alex turns to religion.

He plays the music during religious ceremonies and becomes good friends with the prison chaplain. However Alexs intent on reforming was not a religious aspect but the quickest so he can get revenge on thee traitorous droogs and return to his thug life. He hears about a new technique, the Ludovico Technique, will get him out quickly. He talks to the chaplain, but the latter casts shadows about it by retorting: I must confess I share those doubts. The question is whether such a technique can really make a man good. Goodness comes from within 6655321. Goodness is something chosen.

When a man cannot choose he ceases to be a man (2. 83; ch. 1). This does not deter Alex from the thought of an early release but only makes his desire for it greater. He is picked to be the first test suject of the new Ludovico technique. With the augmentation in population comes an increase in crime too, which brings new techniques to cure or fix the criminal mind. The minister says: The government cannot be concerned any longer with outmoded penalogical theories. Cram criminals together and see what happens. You get concentrated criminality, crime in the midst of punishmentKill the criminal reflex, thats all(2. ; ch. 2).

Alex thinks its an ideal solution, to become good and free at the same time and get out quickly, nothing wrong with that at all. But he does not realize that his eagerness is blinding him from the oppression and he is being robbed of his moral freedom. The prison chaplain again tries to warn him: Very hard ethical questions are involvedyou are to be made into a good boy, 6655321. Never again will you have the desire to commit acts of violence or to offend in any way whatsoever against thee States Peace. I hope you take all that in.

I hope you are absolutely clear in your own mind about thatIs a man who chooses the bad perhaps in some way better than a man who has the good imposed on himIn choosing to be deprived of the ability to make an ethical choice, you have in a sense really chosen the good(2. 95; ch. 3). The rehabilitation technique used upon Alex is that of responsive conditioning, with the use of drugs and films. This type of conditioning forces Alex to feel sick when confronted with evil sites or thoughts. Also included in this conditioning was the use of classical music, which Alex used to love, and now feels nausea when he hears it.

After his fortnight, a two-week period at the institution, Alex seems to be cured, a situation is created where he is to use violence against an aggressive man, but he is unable to because of the conditioning. All the people attending the demonstration see how effective the new technique is, but only the chaplain of the Staja sees the lack of moral freedom. He says: He has no real choice, has he? Self-interest, fear of physical pain, drove him to that grotesque act of self-abasement.

Its insincerity was clearly to be seen. He ceases also to be a creature capable of moral choice (2. 6; ch. 7). The attending doctor simply replies: These are subtletiesWe are not concerned with motive, with higher ethics. We are concerned only with cutting down crime (2. 126; ch. 7). After being released Alex goes back home to Flatblock 18A, where surprisingly his parents think he has escaped and they now live with a new lodger; Unwanted Alex goes to the Public Biblio, where he is attacked by an elderly mob of vecks who recognized Alex as the one who ruined all the books on crystallography. The police come and break up the fray; to Alexs surprise he recognizes two of the millicents.

One is Billyboy, his old nemesis, and the other is Dim, his old droog. They take him out to the country and beat the life out of him; he cannot defend himself because of the conditioning. After waking up from his beat-down, Alex walks to a nearby village and to a house, with the Home sign on it. He doesnt know that it is the house of the author of A Clockwork Orange, but he recognizes Alex and takes care of him. F. Alexander, the author and his friends want to make the public aware of the evils of this new Ludovico technique.

Meanwhile Alex becomes mentally weak, and cannot take anymore of this trauma, he decides to commit suicide. He jumps out of a window, but does not die(3. 169; ch. 6). The fall has somehow cured and freed Alex from the effects of Ludovicos technique, he has again become his bad self again. He soon returns to his thug-habits, and a new group of droogs to surround him. Even with his regained freedom, he chooses not to commit ultra-violence. He becomes reacquainted with an old droog who now has a wife and son and now wants a wife and a son of his own. Alex through time has matured from adolescence to adulthood.

The novels main theme deals with moral freedom, Anthony Burgess expresses his views that no matter how good ones actions are, unless one has moral freedom, they are spiritually restricted and oppressed. Burgess mainly expresses his view and concerns through the chaplains dialogue, where he is the only one that really sees through the evils of Ludovicos technique. If one is forced to be good, and they do what is right, it is not out of any ethical or moral conviction. When one is forced what to do, he us merely a tool, or a pawn of the state, a clockwork orange, an automaton, unlike someone with the freedom of choice who is an individual.

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