Tribal healers was held high political and social positions and was responsible on performing religious ceremonies and protecting the tribe from ad weather, poor harvest and catastrophe. 4. Surgery and medicinal herbs was also used to treat wounds. The Mesopotamia studied heptathlons ( a detailed examination of the liver), believing that liver was the seat of life and the collecting point of blood The Ancient Hebrews considered disease as the divine punishment and mark of sin. Surgery was performed under ritual ceremonies.
Around 4th century, they were influenced by the Greeks giving emphasis on anatomy and physiology, diet, massage and drugs. They considered that disease was caused by the imbalance of four humors of the body: 0 phlegm C] blood 0 yellow CLC black bile Ancient Egypt believing deities in relation to health. Illness and death. Hatter Mistress of heaven, protector of women during childbirth. Skeet = Ensured fertility. Ancient India believed that life was an eternal cycle of creation, preservation and destruction. They detect diabetes by the sweetness of urine and treating snake bite by applying tourniquet.
Ancient China they believed that illness was result of disregard to “Tao” which was considered the way. Chinese medicine was focused on prevention of disease. According to Nee icing, there were 5 methods of treatment: C] cure the spirit CLC nourish C] give medication 0 treat the whole body C] use the body of acupuncture or institutions. Institutions is a treatment in which a powdered plant is burned on the skin. Ancient Greece they build the healing temple of ecclesiae in Thessaly which contain a statue of God to whom gifts are offered as a sign of worship.
There was a: a. Tools – A round building which encircled a pool or sacred spring of water for purification. B. Baton – An incubation building where the cure takes place. The patient went to sleep there until visited and cured by the God. Pre-Hippocratic medicine a. Thales – professed that the basic element in all animal and plant life was water, from which came the earth and air. B. Unexplained believed that all living things originated from water. C. Meanings – believed that air was element necessary for life. D.
Heraclites – believed that fire was the element necessary for life Hippocrates The “Father of Medicine” His ideas revolutionized medicine from the ancient past and began turning it into an objective science. His teachings were: – Observe all – Study the patient rather than the disease – Evaluate honestly – Assist nature Christianity sought to bring the “healing message of Christ”. The church dominated the medicine during dark ages and practices involved prayer, exorcism, holy oil, relics of saints, supernaturalism and superstition The Renaissance a. Paralegals – Father of pharmacology b .
Andrea Overvalues – Father Anatomy c. Isaac Newton – Discovered gravity d. Marcello Magpie and Anton van Leeuwenhoek of microscope The history Of medicine 18th century-26th century – Forerunner a. Giovanni Morgan – Father of pathology. He wrote ‘De Seedbeds et Cassis Marlboro’ – ‘On the Sites and Causes of Diseases’ . Rudolf Birch – Professed that “all cells come from other cells” which revolutionized the understanding of cell. C. Claude Bernard. Discovered the principle of homeostasis. D. J. Marion Sims. Invented Sims position, speculum and catheter. E. Marie and Pierre Curie.
Discovered radium and provide the foundation Of radioactivity 20th century Earlier – “Father of Chemotherapy’ Intention – first EGG Surgical techniques refined 1930- invention Of electron microscope Medicine in the 21st Century – Trend emerging toward a more personal healthcare. – Research into genetics has greatly changed knowledge about heredity and disease – Biotechnology has opened doors in treatment that were once nun magi enable Important Definitions Health – a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Disease – the pattern of response of a living organism to some form of injury Mortality – death rate Morbidity – occurrence of disease Emerging infectious diseases – diseases of infectious origin whose incidence in humans has either increased within the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future Historical perspective of Radiology
The Pioneers of Radiology Evangelists Torricelli’s – produced first recognized vacuum with the invention of the barometer (1643) Cricket, Bayle and Springer – experiments with vacuum tubes (1659, 1865) Isaac Newton – built and improved the static generator Benjamin Franklin – conduction of many electricity experiments Babe Jean Antoine Knolled – significant improvements of the electroscope (a forerunner of the x-ray tube).
William Watson – demonstrated a current of electricity by transmitting current from a jar through wires and a vacuum tube Michael Faraday – electromagnetic induction (led to production of better narrators and transformers for use in x-ray tubes) Johann Wilhelm Hitherto – experiments with cathode rays William Crooks – furthers studies of cathode rays (Crooks tube) William Godspeed – produced first radiography in 1 890 (not credited for discovery of x-rays) RL Maddox – produced film with gelatin silver bromide emulsion (1 871 ) George Eastman – produced and patented roll-paper film (1884) Discovery of Grays Discovered on November 8, 1 895 by Wilhelm Roentgen Roentgen worked at the university Burroughs and did many experiments in the physics department with the cathode ray ‘Crooks Tube’. X-ray: x is the mathematical symbol for unknown quantity Roentgen proved that by continuously producing the fluorescent effect of barium plasticization, he had produced some sort of x-ray Roentgen made the first plate in which he directed the rays from the tube.
The bones in her hand as well as two rings were successful radiography of his wife’s hand using a cassette loaded with a photographic clearly visible This was a major breakthrough in the history of medicine You can’t see, touch, taste, smell or hear…………… The public did not understand the principle behind Cray production (and they still don’t! Entrepreneurs tried to capitalize on the discovery with items such as x-ray glasses, bone portraits, and x-ray units for the home to provide entertainment for guests Finally, Thomas Edison questioned the effects of grays after his eyes were sore and red after working with a fluorescent tube After these reports emerged in the US and Europe, serious efforts were made to protect those who worked with the rays. Today, a career in x-ray is as safe as any other career (with the proper work habits and precautions).