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Study Guide: The World History of Islam

Important because Caliph: The successor of the prophet Muhammad; important because caused he religion to split into two factions based on who they believed should become the next Ca liph (Sunni and Shi’ite). Sunni: A faction of Islam that believed the next Caliph should be the most qualified Muslim to take the position; larger of the two factions. Important because since Islam is divided into 2 groups with different beliefs, instead of 1 empire, there are many empires with different ways of life, innovations, ways of ruling, and interpretations.

Sh i’ite: A faction of Islam that believed the next Caliph should only be a direct descendant of the prophet Muhammad himself. Important because ince Islam is divided into 2 groups with different beliefs, instead of 1 empire, there are many empires with different ways of life, innovations, ways of ruling, and interpretations. Kharijites: faction of Islam that broke away from the Shi’ites. Most radical believed if one committed a sin they were no longer a Muslim because it further divided the Muslims.

Qur’an (or Koran): . Important The Holy Book of the Islamic faith. It’s important because it’s used to dictate the law and daily lives and beliefs of all Muslims living in the Arabia n Peninsula. Hadith: Somebody who reported the words or actions ascribed to Muhammad nd the Companions (his followers); important because it became the chief source of Muslim legal and religious norms, alongside the Qur’an.

Ulama: “persons of right knowledge”; important because theyre scholars whose legal opinions and collective decisions of issues established the basis for religious and social order in the Islamic Empire. Mecca: The city where the Ka’ba was located; considered to be a Holy City for the Islamic faith; the rulers of the city tried to have Muhammad and his followers killed because they needed the Ka’ba and the polytheistic religions in the area in order to keep the area urrounding the Ka’ba to be a safe place to trade, which is what contributed t o Mecca being as prosperous of a city as it was.

Ka’ba: A structure in the city of Mecca that held the idols of all of the polytheistic religions believed in by the warring Bedouin tribes; the area surrounding it was an extremely successful marketplace, and was very peaceful since all who came in the area were linked by a common need to practice their religion (however fighting immediately continued once away from the area). The 5 Pillars: 5 basic duties of a Muslim. Important because in order to be considered good Muslim, one must complete all: 1) Declaration of Faith “There is no god but God, Muhammad is the messeng er of God. 2) Daily Prayer: Takes place 5 times daily in the direction of Mecca, after a ritu al washing 3) Giving charity (or alms ) to those in need 4) Fasting from sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan 5) The Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca once during their lifetime to visit the Ka’ba, the “first House of God” built by Abraham and his son Ishmael at God’s command people of the Book: Those who followed a monotheistic religion (Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism) and lived in

Islamic territory, had to pay a head tax (jizya) to keep being able to practice their religious beliefs. Important because Muhammad let them keep their religious beliefs, surprising everyone when there was no bloodshed. Jizya: Head tax paid by nonlslamic monotheistic religions (Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism) that were practiced in Islamic territory in order to keep the right to continue practicing their religion.

Important because it separated Muslims from nonMusIims in the empires. Financial conflict was caused by this, ultimately leading to the downfalls Of many empires. Sharia: Laws based on the Qur’an. Important because they were used to regulate government, family, and community. Imam: the person who stands in front to leave the ritual prayer. Urdu Hindi: a language that combines Persian Arabic and native Indian elements. Important because new language is an important innovation.

Islamic Renaissance: House of Wisdom: Located in Baghdad (now capital of presentday Iraq) where all of the best scholars/best in every profession in the Islamic Empire resided, and was the center of learning, and new inventions and innovations quickly made their way there Cordoba: City in southern Spain, which was the only European area controlled by he Islamic Empire, most prosperous city on the continent since the remainder of Europe was gong through the Dark Ages; Alhambra, which was located there, was one of the greatest pieces of Islamic architecture; Cordoba was, for some Christians, their first exposure to the rest of the Muslim world Ottoman Vocab Janissaries: Elite Ottoman troops who were recruited through the devshirme. Devshirme: the system under the Ottoman empire that required each province to furnish a levy of Christian boys who were raised as Muslims and became soldiers in the Ottoman army.

Important because t let to the Janissaries, which greatly contributed to the decline of the Ottoman Empire. Safavid Vocab Shah Abbas l: One of the greatest leaders of the Mughal Empire. Important because he brought able leadership to them, opening trade with the English and Dutch, bringing w ealth to Iran, and pushing the Ottomans and Uzbeks out of Azerbaijan. Mughal Vocab Akbar the Great: founder of the Mughal Empire. Important because he was the greatest Indian ruler since Ashoka. Rajputs: The Hindu warrior class whose military prowess was used to fiercely fight against Muslim expansion into India, but ultimately failed due to a ack of unity between the groups.

UrduHindi: The language that was used to try and create a better communication mediu m between Muslims and Hindus in India to better open up trade and everyday communication since the ?o cultures were already radically different to begin with in both class system and religion Vijayanagar: Region of India that stayed center of Hindu culture, political, and religious activity for the longest amount of time after Muslim expansion Short Answer Origins of Islam Muhammad who was born in Mecca was disgruntled by the violence that was getting worse in the Arabian Peninsula and oped to find religion. So one day he went to a cave to pray and was visited by the Archangel Gabriel and he was told to preach the idea of there being only one God. He started preaching to his family. Women and the poor were the first to accept his message.

The leaders of Mecca, who wanted polytheism to continue since it gave the Ka’ba a purpose economically since it was the only safe place In the area for peaceful trade amongst the warring Bedouin tribes out in the surrounding deserts, were not fond of Muhammad’s teachings. After Muhammad’s uncle, the leader of one of the more powerful Bedouin tribes, died, Muhammad and his ollowers were vulnerable for attack. The city of Yathrib, which was experiencing trouble between the Jewish and Arabic tribes in that area, reached out for help from Muhammad, who had a reputation as a good mediator, despite only being a merchant. Muhammad and his followers embarked on a journey to Yathrib, where theyd be given protection upon arrival, and this journey would soon be known as the Hijra, which took place in 622 A. D. When they arrived there, t he city was then renamed Medina, and Islam was recognized as an official religion.

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