In order to understand Harris and how he exemplifies servant leadership, the research must be examined and serve as the background of this paper. This section organizes vital information of scholarly and popular press articles that reveal the definition, characteristics, and findings of servant leadership. Specifically, this section of the paper first explains the basic definition of servant leadership, which is, for the most part, is derived from Robert Greenleaf’s interpretation of servant leadership. It then heads towards the characteristics of servant leadership.
Finally, this paper briefly provides conclusions and findings that result from a leader having a servant leadership style. Servant Leadership Defined This section synthesizes how numerous practitioners define servant leadership. Most practitioners define a servant leader as being a servant first (Crippen, 2004; Grisaffe, VanMeter, & Chonko, 2016; Gyeongchun, 2014; Jit, Sharma, & Kawatra, 2016; Parris & Peachey, 2013; Russell & Stone, 2002; Spears, 2004; Spiro, 2010; Waterman, 2011; Wilson, 1998; Wong & Page, 2003).
They then go on to agree that the primary focus of servant leadership is on others rather than their self (Blanchard, 2001; Chanhoo, Kwangseo, & Seung-Wan, 2015; Crippen, 2004; Grisaffe, VanMeter, & Chonko, 2016; Gyeongchun, 2014; Jit, Sharma, & Kawatra, 2016; Liden et al. , 2014; Parris & Peachey, 2013; Rubio-Sanchez, Bosco, & Melchar, 2013; Russell & Stone, 2002; Spears, 2004; Spiro, 2010; Waterman, 2011; Wilson, 1998; Wong & Page, 2003).
As well, servant leaders are motivated by the need to serve the followers (Blanchard, 2001; Chanhoo, Kwangseo, & Seung-Wan, 2015; Crippen, 2004; Grisaffe, VanMeter, & Chonko, 2016; Gyeongchun, 2014; Jit, Sharma, & Kawatra, 2016; Liden et al. , 2014; Parris & Peachey, 2013; Rubio-Sanchez, Bosco, & Melchar, 2013; Russell & Stone, 2002; Spears, 2004; Spiro, 2010; Waterman, 2011; Wilson, 1998; Wong & Page, 2003).
Likewise, servant leadership refers to a style in which leaders go beyond their own self-interests and are concerned with serving followers with the purpose of allowing them to grow and foster success (Chanhoo, Kwangseo, & Seung-Wan, 2015; Crippen, 2004; Grisaffe, VanMeter, & Chonko, 2016; Jit, Sharma, & Kawatra, 2016; Liden et al. , 2014; Russell & Stone, 2002; Spears, 2004; Spiro, 2010; Waterman, 2011; Wilson, 1998). Parris and Peachey clearly define that “servant leaders are de? ed by their character and by demonstrating their complete commitment to serve others” (Parris & Peachey, 2013, p. 379). As well, servant leaders also often advocate engaging in knowledge-sharing behaviors among subordinates because doing improves organizational performance (Chanhoo, Kwangseo, & Seung-Wan, 2015; Rubio-Sanchez, Bosco, & Melchar, 2013). It is also believed that servant leadership begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve.
Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. Servant leaders make it a point to put others first and to put in their fair share of work, if not more. Furthermore, servant leaders feel a moral responsibility to bring success to the organization, the subordinates, the customers and other stakeholders (Jit, Sharma, & Kawatra, 2016; Rubio-Sanchez, Bosco, & Melchar, 2013; Spears, 2004; Spiro, 2010; Waterman, 2011). Servant leaders are able to bring success because they do not let power take over their lives.
Their existence is to serve others, which promotes a positive and progressive environment for everyone. Characteristics This section combines and differentiates how numerous practitioners characterize servant leadership. Many practitioners agree that the six key characteristics of servant leadership are that they empower and develop people, have humility, authenticity, interpersonal acceptance, provide direction, and stewardship (Chanhoo, Kwangseo, & Seung-Wan, 2015; Gyeongchun, 2014; Parris & Peachey, 2013).
In addition, many practitioners claim that the ten characteristics of a servant leader are; listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of others, and building communities (Crippen, 2004; Rubio-Sanchez, Bosco, & Melchar, 2013; Russell & Stone, 2002; Spears, 2004; Waterman, 2011; Wilson, 1998).
Once again, many practitioners place an emphasis on listening, specifically, Spiro, (2010) claims that servant leaders are good at listening, they stay close to their colleagues, they have a good understanding of what their colleagues need to perform at a high level, and they work hard to get that to them. One of the most defining characteristics of a servant leader is that they must walk the talk of being servants first (Grisaffe, VanMeter, & Chonko, 2016, p. 43). In order to be a servant leader, one must be a servant before they can lead and they their actions must follow their words.
As well, servant leaders encourage their followers to put others’ interests first and to work hard (Chanhoo, Kwangseo, & Seung-Wan, 2015; Grisaffe, VanMeter, & Chonko, 2016; Jit, Sharma, & Kawatra, 2016; Liden et al. , 2014; Wong & Page, 2003). Practitioners differentiate their idea of what a servant leader looks like in that Waterman, (2011) believes that “servant leaders stand out in their willingness to serve and value others without rancor or the need to be defensive, even if provoked. Their sole interest is in developing those whom they lead and those with whom they collaborate. In order to be a servant leader, one must wholeheartedly serve others and feel as though they want to, not that they have to. While, Gyeongchun, (2014) trusts that every Christian is fundamentally a servant and that they derive their behaviors from the character of God.
Their existence is to serve others. Likewise, servant leaders place a stronger emphasis on spiritual orientation, which motivates leaders to serve others. Spiritual leadership comprises the values, attitudes, and behaviors that are necessary to intrinsically motivate oneself and others, which include vision, altruistic love, and hope/faith (Jit, Sharma, & Kawatra, 2016, p. 93-194). Many leaders have a Christian influence and since God, along with many of his followers were servant leaders, they also feel the need to be a servant leader. Findings/Conclusions This section reveals what practitioners conclude from the practice of servant leadership. Many practitioners find that when organizations have servant leaders this leads to an increase in team performance.
Workers want to work hard because they see that everyone within the company, even the manager is putting their fair share of time, effort, and dedication. (Chanhoo, Kwangseo, & Seung-Wan, 2015; Liden et al. 2014; Rubio-Sanchez, Bosco, & Melchar, 2013). Grisaffe, VanMeter, & Chonko, (2016) discover that when organizations have managers that follow servant leadership this leads to an overall satisfaction within the company. Employees enjoy when their work is appreciated and that their managers work to serve them, while managers enjoy that everyone is content with their place within the company. Gyeongchun and Spears uncover the fact that in order for a company and its employees to succeed a servant must understand and practice what it means to be a servant leader. (Gyeongchun, 2014; Spears, 2004).
Servant leaders” have to actually serve others and put their needs before their own, as a result, these true servant acts will reflect on the company’s achievement. What is more, Jit, Sharma, & Kawatra, (2016) discover that when leaders follow servant leadership they guide followers to take responsibility and solve their own problems. Within servant leadership authority is shared, everyone is responsible for their actions, which forces individuals to be responsible and to solve problems. When people have this ability this allows leaders to focus their attention on the upward mobility of the company and its followers.
Once again, this review if literature looks specifically at scholarly and popular press articles in order to organize and make certain of what the definition of servant leadership is, the characteristics, and the findings of servant leadership in given contexts. These practitioners reinforce that a leader is a servant leader when they serve others first, listen, as well as, care about subordinates opinions, and find that servant leadership leads to an increase in team performance, which leads to a better job satisfaction for everyone. Methodology
This section describes the methodology of this project and gives in detail what was done in order to learn about Dan Harris and the leadership style he exemplifies. The main methodology of this project is an interview process. The interview took part in two sections. Section one consisting of twenty-one questions about his life and section two consisting of twenty-one questions about leadership. The life story questions asked anything from his cultural background to his fondest memories. These questions were formulated in such a way to get an idea for the type of person he is and how his past influenced who he is.
The leadership questions asked anything from the type of leadership he believes he follows to what he believes is the worst leadership style. Therefore, these questions were formulated in a way to understand his interpretation of what it means to be a leader and which forms of leadership are the most valuable. The life story questions were asked on January 16th and the leadership questions were asked on January 17th. Each interview was two hours and during which Harris was asked open-ended questions and the response was immediately transcribed.
It is important to note that the interview was also recorded so that it could be referred to if necessary, however, due to copies notes, there was no need to refer back to the recording. Ultimately, through the interview process, it becomes clear that Harris epitomizes a servant leader and is humble about how successful of a leader he truly is. The interview process allowed insight to be gained as to why Dan Harris has such a strong desire to serve others, which is what a servant leader does.