Music History 1st year midterm notes Chapter V: The Middle Ages and the Evolution of Polyphony Early Middle Ages (5th-10th century) High Middle Ages (1 lath-13th century) Late Middle Ages (14th-1 5th century) Composers: Hildebrand of Binge (1098-1179) Songs composed Plainchant Sequence: Communal Aspect About: -German writer, composer, philosopher, Christian, and visionary -had visions and later recognized as a gift from god. -was sent to the church in god’s service, due to her visions or political position. -elected magistrate in her community in 1136 -wrote 69 musical compositions music composed is very monophonic.
Beneath De Vendor (1130вЂ” – 1200вЂ”) Court Music: La Dogma Vote -a troubadour and secular composer -his composition/writing style helped establish the classical form of courtly love poetry -is French -approximately 45 of his composition and works survived. Operation/Operation the Great (End of 12th Century – Beginning of 13th Century) Organza Music: Alleluia: Diffuse est.. Gratin -European Composer (believed to be French) -pioneered the style of organza triplet/quadrupled (3/4 part harmonies) -his works are preserved in the “Magnums Libber” Gallinule De Macho Nova)
Songs Composed Polyphonic Progression: Dame, De quiz touted ma Joe event Quant en mom -Medieval French poet and composer -part of the musical movement known as Ears Nova -helped developed the motet and secular song forms -survived the black death/plague and 7 chansons royals. -majority of his poems reflect on the conventions of courtly love. Chapter VI: The Renaissance Began in Italy after late middle ages and spread to the rest of Europe Cultural movement that spanned from 14th-17th century The printing press was developed which helped spread this movement.
Gallinule Duffy (1397-1474) New Attitudes: Eave Maria Stella -Netherlands composer of the early renaissance -most famous and influential composer in Europe in the 1 5th century -printing press allowed for his works to spread rapidly -wrote 7 complete masses, 28 individual mass movements, 15 chants, 3 magnificent, 15 antiphons, 27 hymns, 22 motets, and 87 chansons.
Joaquin des Prep High Renaissance Style: Panged lingua Mass, Keri Panged lingua Mass, from the Gloria Music As Expression : Mille Regrets -Netherlands composer of high renaissance -wrote both sacred and secular music -wrote 18 masses, 100 motets, 70 chansons traveled a lot -a humanist composer, uses word painting Giovanni Purlieu dad Palestinian (1525-1594) Late Renaissance Style: Pope Marvelous Mass -Italian Renaissance Composer -Incidentally enough, was born in a town called Palestinian -under the influence of the European style of polyphony -choir master and composer -wrote 105 masses, 68 offertories, 140 madrigals, 300 motets Thomas weeks (1576-1623) Secular Music Style of Renaissance: As Vests was from Lattes Hill -English Composer -Became organist of Winchester College and Chester Cathedral 1 598 -wrote many many madrigals works consisted heavily on vocal compositions -most anthems written are verse anthems Chapter VI’: The Early Baroque Period From 1600-1680 Period of artistic style and development of exaggerations and motions Encouraged by the roman catholic church Giovanni Gabriele (1554-1612) Renaissance to Baroque Progression: O magnum mysteries -Italian composer and organist -Influential musician in the shift of Renaissance to Baroque -born in Venice -became organist of SST.
Marks Basilica in 1585 Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (1567-1643) Features of Early Baroque Music Style: Coronation of Poppa Italian composer, gambits, singer and roman catholic priest -his compositions marked the transition from Renaissance to Baroque -developed the basso continuo technique -became a priest in 1632 -primarily worked on madrigals but composed operas as well Henry Purcell (1659-1695) Early Opera Style: Dido Names -English composer -incorporated Italian and French styles into his compositions -developed a unique English form of the baroque style -wrote an ode for the kings birthday at the age of 1 1 Chapter V: The Middle Ages Important Terms: Chant: Words that are said musically Texture: The consonance and dissonance of sound. Motif: Small entity sequence in music.
Form -> Structure Departure Return Music and the Church: Plainchant Plainchant antiphon, “In paradises” CD 1:1 – monophonic – very syllabic (one note per syllable) – gentle intervals and rhythms – floats, no general direction (modal toned) – Latin Hildebrand of Binge: Plainchant sequence, “Columbia aspects” CD 1 – homophobic (accompanied by a low toned string instrument as a pedal tone. – pneumatic (few notes per syllable) – smooth intervals Music at Court Bernard De Vendor: La Dogma Vote CD 1:3 danceable – homophobic ( accompanied by a strummed lute ) – most of the time syllabic, sometimes pneumatic for decoration purpose – fast rhythms and Jumpy intervals – secular – written by troubadours – French Chapter V: The Evolution of Polyphony Polyphony: producing sounds simultaneously, 2 or more equal voices. – came as way to enhance chant music.
Homophony: melody is accompanied by an instrument or a group of voices. Imitative Polyphony: repeating of motifs (I. E. Fugues) Organza: adding the same note/notes parallel in perfect ethos or ethos Motet: adding words to organza. Still has chant voice, two/three voices are written above the chant voice. Hockey: When voices take turns singing. Earlier Medieval Polyphony Operation – Organza: Alleluia. Diffuse est.. Gratin CD 1 :4 -polyphonic -floats, no direction -special motif at beginning is restated at the end of the song. -arrogantly structured. Later Medieval Polyphony Anonymous: Round: Summer is Rumen In CD 1:5 -repeating motifs everywhere -Early medieval English -round or paragons (I. E. Owe row row your boat) Macho: Dame, De quiz touted ma Joe event CD 1:6 Macho: Quant en mom -French -Motet lots of dissonance -floats melody Chapter VI: The Renaissance Ears Nova: 14th century -age of exploration -age of humanism -focus of human life and accomplishment, of appreciation in the beauty of a life – secular movement develops New Attitudes Duffy: Eave Mans Stella CD -very arrogantly decorated -floats modal melody -in Gregorian style -Latin The High Renaissance Style – blend of homophony, and imitative counterpoint. – has rich harmonic textures – usually in capable only Joaquin: Panged lingua Mass, Keri CD 1:8 -very melodramatic -repeating motifs in other voice parts
Joaquin: Panged lingua Mass, from the Gloria CD 1:9 -repeating motifs in other parts in specific order -pneumatic -ends palpably Music as Expression Joaquin: Mille Regrets CD 1:10 -very intimate and sad -unresolved ending -word painting used heavily -motifs taking turns in other parts Late Renaissance Music Palestinian: Pope Marvelous Mass CD 1 -solid chord structures -every part is equally as important The Motet Secular music of the Renaissance Wilkes: As Vests was from Lattes Hill CD 1:12 -English -very secular -heavily polyphonic, pneumatic -word painting heavily emphasized danceable Instrumental Music: Early Developments Anon: Gaillardia Daphne CD 1:13 -triple time -dance rhythms Anon: Kemps Gig CD 1:14 -fast and with dance rhythms -duple time Dance Stabilization Basso Continuo: Chords that are written specifically for an instrument that fills in the harmonic textures. -allows soloists to sing more freely Castrate: Male singers who were menstruated so that they could sing soprano parts. -rockets of opera -very very wealthy From Renaissance to Baroque G.
Gabriel’: O magnum mysteries CD 1:15 -homophobic -full, rich chords and structures Style Features of Early Baroque Music Opera – tells a story – all dialogue is sung Monteverdi: Coronation of Poppa CD 1:16-17 -Italian -Homophobic -has aria -dialogue in song -telling a story Purcell: Dido and Names CD 1: 18-19 -very sad -minor key going chromatically down -repeats base motif over and over again but becoming more decorative as the song progresses -Italian on 18 -English on 19 The Rise of Instrumental Music Foreseeable: Suite (Canon, Ballet, Corrected, and piccalilli) CD 1:20-23 -very dance like -only played by instrument -sounds like an organ