History of quality management
Accompanying the creation of inspection functions, other problems arose: ; More chemical problems occurred, requiring specialized skills, often not possessed by production workers ; The inspectors lacked training ; Inspectors were ordered to accept defective goods, to increase output ; Skilled workers were promoted Into other roles, leaving less skilled workers to perform the operational Jobs, such as manufacturing These changes led to the birth of the separate Inspection department with a “chief Inspector”, reporting to either the person In charge of manufacturing or the works manager.
With the creation of this new department, there came new services and sues, e. G, standards, training, recording of data and the accuracy of measuring equipment. It became clear that the responsibilities of the “chief inspectВ« were more than Just product acceptance, and a need to address defect prevention emerged. Hence the quality control department evolved, in charge of which was a “quality control manager”, with responsibility for the inspection services and quality control engineering.
In the 1 us statistical theory began to be applied effectively to quality control, and in 1924 Shareware made the first sketch of a modern control chart. His work was later developed by Deeming and the early work of Shareware, Deeming, Dodge and Oromo constitutes much of what today comprises the theory of statistical process control (SSP). However, there was little use of these techniques In manufacturing companies until the late sass’s.
At that time, Japan’s industrial system was virtually destroyed, and it had a reputation for cheap imitation products and an illiterate workforce. The Japanese recognized these problems and set about solving them with the help of some notable quality gurus – Curran, Deeming and Figment. In the early sass’s, quality management raciest developed rapidly in Japanese plants, and become a major theme in Japanese management philosophy, such that, by 1960, quality control and management had become a national preoccupation.
By the late sass’s/early sass’s Japan’s imports into the USA and Europe increased significantly, due to Its cheaper, higher quality products, compared to the Western counterparts. To From Excellence Quality www. It. Gob. UK/quality/evolution page 1 of 2 to In 1969 the first international conference on quality control, sponsored by Japan, America and Europe, was held in Tokyo. In a paper given by Figment, the term total quality’ was used for the first time, and referred to wider issues such as planning, organization and management responsibility.
Chickasaws gave a paper explaining how “total quality control” in Japan was different, it meaning “company wide quality control”, and describing how all employees, from top management to the workers, must study and participate in quality control. Company wide quality management was common in Japanese companies by the late sass’s. The quality revolution in the West was slow to follow, and did not begin until the early sass’s, when companies introduced their own quality programmed and initiatives to counter the Japanese success. Total quality management (TTS) became the centre of these drives in most cases.
In a Department of Trade & Industry publication in 1982 it was stated that Britain’s world trade share was declining and this was having a dramatic effect on the standard of living in the country. There was intense global competition and any country’s economic performance and reputation for quality was made up of the reputations and performances of its individual companies and products/services. The British Standard (BBS) 5750 for quality systems ad been published in 1979, and in 1983 the National Quality Campaign was launched, using BOSSES as its main theme.
The aim was to bring to the attention of industry the importance of quality for competitiveness and survival in the world market place. Since then the International Standardization Organization (SO) 9000 has become the internationally recognized standard for quality management systems. It comprises a number of standards that specify the requirements for the documentation, implementation and maintenance of a quality system. TTS is now part of a much wider concept that addresses overall organizational performance and economies the importance of processes.