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History of Psychology

What is Psychology? Psychology is said to be the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. The study of human behavior, development, and learning; and also seeks to understand and explain thought, emotion, and behavior. Today the question we are doing falls under the History of Psychology. It deals with the earlier schools (Structuralism and Functionalism) and compares them with the most recent schools of psychology (Gestalt psychology, Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Psychology). Structuralism What is structuralism (voluntarisms)?

Structuralism is said to be an approach to the human sciences which attempts to break conscious experience, down into objective sensation. Such as sight or taste, and subjective feelings, such as emotional response, will and mental images like memories or dream. Example Ryan calls Makita, she is conscious of him calling her, now she has to make that into response yt actually using her senses and responding. Founder of Structuralism Psychology became recognized as a formal academic discipline when Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) founded a laboratory for structuralism for psychological study in Germany in 1879.

Wundt is often called the “father of experimental psychology” for this reason. However, structuralism is mainly identified with Edward B. Titchener (1867–1927), a student of Wundt. Structuralism involved a method called introspection (to engage in one’s own mind and feelings). It was self-observed by involving observers that describes elements of an object or experience rather than calling it by a familiar name. Both structuralism and introspection were later criticized, and eventually faded away as newer ideas advanced. Structuralism also deals with elements of experience.

Functionalism What is functionalism? The school of functionalism focused on behaviorism in addition to the mind (consciousness). It is concerned with how the mind functions, rather than the structure. Functionalists looked at how our experience helps us function more adaptively in our environments. They dispute about the stream of conscious is fluid and continuous and experience cannot be broken down into objective sensations and subjective feeling as the structuralist maintained. Example How habits help us cope with common situation.

Who created functionalism? William James (1842-1910) brother of the novelist Henry James has been called the first true American psychologist. I wish by treating psychology like a natural science to help her become written by Mr. William James. Functionalism also involved a form of introspection called introspection by analogy. Introspection by analogy assumed that the same mental processes that occur in a human mind must also occur in the minds of animals. Just as structuralism was, functionalism was also criticized. Gestalt Psychology

What is Gestalt Psychology? Gestalt psychology focuses on perception and how perception influences thinking and problem solving. In contrast to the behaviorist, Gestalt psychologists argued that we cannot hope to understand human nature by focusing only on overt behavior. In contrast to the structuralists, they claim that we cannot explain human perceptions, emotions, or thought processes in terms of basic units. Perception is more than the sums of their parts: Gestalt psychologists saw our perceptions as wholes that give meaning to parts.

The German word Gestalt translates roughly to “patterns” or “organized whole”. Why created Gestalt Psychology? Gestalt Psychology began to develop in 1910. This school of psychology was founded by a group of psychologists in the 1930’s led by Max Wertheimer (1880-1943), Kurt Koffka(1886-1941),and Wolfgang Kohler (1887-1967). Psychoanalysis What is Psychoanalysis? Psychoanalysis is the school of psychology that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinants of human behavior. It digs beneath the surface.

Who’s The Father of This theory? Psychoanalysis is the school of psychology founded by Sigmund Freud. It differs from the other schools in both background and approach. Freud theory has invaded popular culture, and you may be familiar with a number of its concepts. Freud came to believe that unconscious processes, especially sexual and aggressive impulses, are more influential than conscious thought in determining human behavior. He thought that most of the mind is unconscious – a seething caldron of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes.

People are motivated to gratify these impulses, ugly as some of them are For example Perhaps a friend has tried to “interpret” a slip of the tongue you made or has asked you what you thought might be the meaning of an especially vivid dreams. Cognitive Psychology This is… The investigation of ways in which we perceive and mentally represent the world, how we learn, remember the past, plan for the future, solve problems from judgements, make decisions, and use a language.

Psychologists with a Cognitive perspective venture into the realm of mental processes to understand human nature (Sperry 1998). They Cognitive Psychologists, in short, study those things we call the mind. Who Is the Founder? We find Cognitive Psychology have roots in Socrates, structuralism, functionalism and Gestalt Psychology, each of which , in its own way, addressed issues that are of interest to Cognitive Psychology An example of Cognitive Psychology Is It’s the basic everyday life. It is what we go through from infancy to old age.

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