Cover page Title Page Letter of transmittal Table of Contents List of Illustrations Executive Summary Report Body Smriti formed the core of Indian customary and traditional law. At that time we used to have sreni structure They defined priveleges and responsibilities of members, Commercial dues and Royal duties Allocation of shares, Sales and purchase Regulation, non payment of wages. They reveal the nature of legal structure that was prevalent in early and early medieval Indian society In sreni there were no caste barriers, sreni had economic agenda & also had administrative work like social benefits.
Even sreni had made their sense of accounting in form of INCOME – sales, contribution from new members, penalty, money lenders & EXPENDITURE – losses, production, transportation and security costs. They used to look for social benefits In sultanate period the war which took place number of times with their aim to increase their territory and conquer the place . they never took into consideration the amount of soldiers dying, their rights, houses and the place where the war happend destroyed en number of properties. The political system was completely unstable.
Sultanates knew how to trade so they always lend up with favourable balance of payment and good balance of trade. They import horses for war purposes. In Mughal period en number of mughal emporers came into power of which some of them were turned to be good administrator and some bad. Good Administrators Shershah Suri, akbar, etc who consolidated INDIA brought some stability, brought some kind of measures like welfare, taxation, revenue collection for the betterment for their people. Even in Sultanate period the Structure were their in kingdom or in administration and had department heads.
Even at sultanate period we had favourable balance of trade. They had inequality of wealth distribution and revenue collection policy like land revenue between Hindus and Muslims. Indus valley Its citizens practiced agriculture, domesticated animals, made sharp tools and weapons from copper, bronze and tin and traded with other cities. Evidence of well laid streets, layouts, drainage system and water supply in the valley’s major cities, Harappa, Lothal, Mohenjo-daro and Rakhigarhi reveals their knowledge of urban planning Harappa civilisation
Vedic stage Later vedic stage Epic and buddhist stage Maurya stage Sangam stage Gupta stage Mauryan Empire RELEVANCE FOR TODAY In course of an International Conference held in 1902 at Oriental Research Institute, Myore, India to celebrate the Centenary of discovery of the manuscript of the Arthsastra by Shamasastry, eminent Kaulilya experts from all over the world had discussed various aspects of Kauliya’s thought in the light of present day scenario.
Aryans Political System The political system of the Aryans in their initial days here was amazingly complex, though quite ingenious. They hung around together in small village settlements (which later grew to kingdoms) and the basis of their political and social organization was, not surprisingly, the clan or kula. Being of somewhat militant nature, this was very much a patriarchal society, with the man in the house expected to keep his flock in control.
Groups of kulas together formed a Grama or village, which was headed by a Gramina. Many villages formed another political unit called a Visya, headed by a Visyapati. The Visyas in turn collected under a Jana, which was ruled by a Rajana or king. However, the precise relationship between the grama, the visya and the jana has not been clearly defined anywhere.