History of Architecture
Pre-Christian traditions and incorporated zigzags, spirals and fierce animal heads. The typical wall decorations were painted murals. The Romanesque building techniques spread to England at about the time of the Norman conquest. Representative of the period are Abbey auk Homes (the Abbey of the Men) in Cane, France; Worms Cathedral in Germany, the Cathedral of Pisa with its famous leaning campanile (bell tower), Modern Cathedral and the Pram Cathedral in Italy, and Durham Cathedral and Petrography Cathedral in England. Saint-Georges De Viscerally Abbey, France, has a square tower over the crossing.
The western pinnacles are in the Gothic style. Spryer Cathedral, Germany, from the east, shows the apse projecting from a chancel framed by towers, with an octagonal dome over the crossing. Pisa Cathedral, Italy, has a free-standing campanile and presents a harmony of polychrome and arcades. Romanesque interiors San Minimal al Monte, Florence, has basilicas form, open timber roof and decoration of polychrome marble and mosaic. The Church of SST Philter, Torturous, has tall circular piers and is roofed with transverse arches supporting a series of barrel vaults.
VГ©Zelda Abbey has clusters of vertical shafts rising to support transverse arches and a groin vault. The east end is Gothic. The nave of Petrography Cathedral is in three stages supporting a rare wooden ceiling retaining its original decoration Early Christian The period of architecture termed Early or Pale-Christian lasted from the first Christian Church buildings of the early 4th century until the development of a distinctly Byzantine style which emerged in the reign of Justinian I in the 6th century, rather than with the removal of the seat of the Roman Empire to Byzantium by Constantine in 330 CE.
Some of the earliest Christian churches were constructed in Armenia where Christianity became the official religion in 301. The small aisles Basilica to the Holy Cross at Apart is traditionally dated to the 4th century. Large Early Christian churches generally took the form of aisled basilicas with an apse. Among the early larger churches in Rome the Basilica of Santa Maria Maguire has retained much of its original internal arrangement, its vast basilicas proportions, its simple aphasia end, its great colonnade supporting a straight cornice rather than arches and some very early mosaic decoration.
Santa Sabina, also in Rome, exemplifies the simplicity of architectural decoration that characterized many of the early Christian basilicas. Other important churches of this period are the two ancient circular churches of Rome, The Basilica of Santa Stanza and San Stefan Rotund. These churches are marked by their formal application of the Roman architectural orders in their columns, with Ionic capitals supporting the lintel at Santa Maria Maguire, Corinthian capitals at Santa Sabina and Santa Stanza, and all three orders at San Stefan.
At Santa Stanza the thick brick walls of the central tambourine re supported on slim elegant columns that are paired to give extra strength, each pair supporting a small section of cornice from which the arches spring. A number of Romeos churches have retained Early Christian mosaics. Those at Santa Stanza are similar to mosaics and painted decoration found in public and domestic interiors, being largely geometric or floral, but close examination reveals much Christian symbolism in the choice of motives. One of the most extensive decorative schemes from the period to have remained at least partially intact is that at Santa Maria
Maguire, where the proscenium of apse is decoration with stories of the Infancy of Jesus drawn from the Gospel of Matthew. Where churches of Early Christian foundation remain, they are mostly considerably altered, are badly deteriorated and no longer viable, or are roofless ruins, a state which almost overtook San Stefan, prior to a renovation in the 15th century. The 4th century Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem was rebuilt by Justinian I after a fire in the 6th century, but appears to have retained much of its original form, including its massive Roman colonnades.
The Constantine Church of the Holy Sepulcher, on the other hand, was demolished under the order of the Muslim ruler in 1009 so that what stands today is a total reconstruction. The Paraphrase Basilica in Porte, Croatia, was founded in 360 on the site of a house church and retaining part of its Roman pavement. Although renovated and decorated in the late 6th century, the church has retained Early Christian features, including the atrium. Several Early Christian churches exist in Syria and Armenia, mostly in a ruined state.
These show Roman rather than Byzantine architectural features, but have a regional character distinct from those of Rome. 2] Early Christian churches of Rome The Ancient Basilica of Santa Sabina, Rome (circa 425) has a typical basilicas plan with a high semi-circular apse. Internally, Santa Sabina appears little changed since Early Christian times. The Basilica of San Stefan Rotund, Rome (circa 470) has lost the outer of its three arcades but retains the ancient core of the structure. Early Christian church interiors The Basilica to Santa Maria Maguire, Rome.
Its denudation dated by tradition to a miraculous snowfall in 352. Ancient mosaics are incorporated into Baroque decorations. The Mausoleum of Santa Stanza, Rome (circa 350) The Early Christian apse mosaic of Santa Pudenda in Rome has been retained despite later renovations. Cruciform architectural plan A cruciform plan is an architectural plan used in Christian churches. It is characterized by an east end with an altar, a west end with a baptismal font and north and south arms appearing like crosses.
It is a layout commonly used in Christian churches. Plan of Petrography Cathedral, 12th century, with later elaboration of both east and west ends. Main articles: Cathedral diagram and Cathedral architecture of Western Europe This is a common description of Christian churches. In Early Christian, Byzantine and other Eastern Orthodox forms of church architecture this is more likely to mean a terracotta plan, a Greek cross, with arms of equal length or, later, a cross- in-square plan, more like a square.
In the Western churches it usually, though not exclusively, means a church built with the layout developed in Gothic architecture * An east end, containing an altar and often with an elaborate, comprising: decorated window, through which light will shine in the early part of the day. West end, which sometimes contains a baptismal font, being a large decorated bowl, n which water can be firstly, blessed (dedicated to the use and purposes of God) and then used for baptism. North and south transepts, being “arms” of the cross and often containing rooms for gathering, small side chapels, or in many cases other necessities such as an organ and toilets. * The crossing, which in later designs often was under a tower or dome. In churches that are not oriented with the altar at the geographical east end, it is usual to refer to the altar end as “liturgical east” and so forth. Another example of ancient cruciform architecture[l] can be found in Hero’s temple, the second Jewish temple.