History Final Review

History 1378: The US since 1877 Dr. Buzzanco Final Exam Review Part I – Domestic Policy: (75 points) Three of the following four questions will appear on the examination. Of those three you will choose one to answer thoroughly. Each of the questions will require some information from the books, in addition to the material from lecture (so prepare accordingly). You must write in essay form with an introduction, substantive body paragraphs and a conclusion in three or four pages. 1. The counter-culture of the 1950’s developed in response to the ‘culture of conformity. Explain the ‘culture of conformity’ – both its characteristics and the motivations that caused its development. How did that culture reflect the preoccupation with the containment of communism? How and why did the counter-culture reject the ‘culture of conformity’? 2. How did various groups in the 1960’s question authority? In what ways did those groups challenge the established ruling class? Identify specific movements or groups that emerged and what tactics they used to question authority.

In what way did later generations commodify the counterculture of the 1960s, and for what purpose? 3. Under President Nixon there was a backlash to the counter-culture of the 1960’s. Describe that counter-culture and the various motivations behind its development – in term of both domestic and foreign policy. Why did people begin to reject it? How did attitudes about race, social programs, and the Vietnam War change during this time? 4. Examine how the modern Civil Rights movement changed over time.

How did Martin Luther King’s message change? What new leadership emerged within the movement? How did their approach differ from that of Martin Luther King? How did popular opinion change towards the movement? Part II – Foreign Policy: (75 points) Three of the following four questions will appear on the examination. Of those three you will choose one to answer thoroughly. Each of the questions will require some information from the books, in addition to the material from lecture (so prepare accordingly).

You must write in essay form with an introduction, substantive body paragraphs and a conclusion in three or four pages. 1. Why did the US get involved in Vietnam? What was the justification for the war, and did that justification reflect the reality of US intervention? What problems (both in Vietnam and in the US) did the military face fighting the war, and how did those problem contribute to the US loss? 2. What are the two fundamental issues for US foreign policy in the Middle East? How have those issues shaped US policy in the region from 1945?

Give at least three specific examples of direct and/or indirect US intervention in the Middle East. 3. Explain American foreign policy towards Iraq and Afghanistan from the 1970’s to the present day. How and why did this policy change? Did these policies result in “blowback” against the United States? 4. What is the history behind the 9/11 attacks? Explain how the US intervention in Afghanistan contributed to the formation of the Taliban and Al Qaeda? What three reasons were given for the attacks and why is US involvement in Iraq, Israel, and Saudi Arabia a factor?

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