History Exam 2

****The Second Examination will not cover the Great Depression and New Deal (chapter 24) Questions that will be used to make the true/false and multiple-choice section of the Second Examination This section will consist of 40 questions worth one point each The large essay will be worth 35 points The smaller essay will be worth 25 points 1. Who did big-city machines work with to solidify their control? P 594 a. state legislatures is who they began to work with 2. What did the systematic disenfranchisement of African American voters result in? p 596 b.

Stripped black communities of any political power 3. Why did Southern Progressives support the disfranchisement and segregation of African Americans? P 596 c. Believed they were necessary preconditions for political and social reform 4. Like Walter Lippmann, sociologist Lester Frank Ward debunked Social Darwinism on what grounds? P 589 d. They had wrongly applied evolutionary theory to human affairs. They had confused organic evolution with social evolution. Nature’s method was genetic: unplanned, involuntary, automatic and mechanical. . What did the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union’s efforts at prohibition and other social reforms allow women to do? P 596 e. Provided women with a political forum in which they could fuse their traditional moral posture as guardians of the home with broader public concerns. 6. Why did many businessmen support prohibition? 596 f. Saw a link between closing a community’s saloons and increasing the productivity of workers. 7. By supporting prohibition and ending prostitution, what did the progressive reformers hope to achieve? 597 g.

Help regulate the new medium as a way of improving the commercial recreation of the urban poor. 8. What was the most important trend in public education during the Progressive era? 600 h. The expansion and bureaucratization of the nations public school systems 9. The ready-to-wear garment industry predominantly employed what ethnic group? 604 i. Primarily Jewish immigrants 10. Why was the Ludlow Massacre significant? 605 j. ???? 11. Why did President Theodore Roosevelt support the Hepburn Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act? 612 k.

Insisted on the right and power of the federal government to reign in excessive corporate behavior. 12. Why did Margaret Sanger and fellow advocates want birth control? 609 l. Advancing sexual freedom for middleclass women, as well as responding to the misery of those working class women who bore numerous children while living in poverty. 13. Why did Social Darwinist believe racism was acceptable toward African Americans? 609 m. Blacks were a “degenerate” race, genetically predisposed to vice, crime, and disease and destined to lose the struggle of existence against whites.

Believed they were inferior and were exposed to crime. 14. What was the National Association of Colored People’s journal called? 610 n. The Crisis 15. What were the basic tenets of Wilson’s New Freedom? o. ??? 16. Who were the “Muckrakers”? 589 p. David Graham Phillips and his colleagues 17. Who advocated that blacks and whites could be socially “as separate as the fingers” on a hand? 609 q. Booker T Washington 18. What had Taft done to encourage Roosevelt to enter the l912 presidential race? 614 r. Alienated Roosevelt and many other progressives 19.

Passage of the Underwood Simmons Tariff was made possible by which Amendment and what did it establish? 615 s. 16th amendment; substantially reduced tariff duties on a variety of raw materials and manufactured goods, including wool, sugar, agricultural machinery, shoes, iron and steel. Also imposed the first graduated tax on personal income. 20. What was the most significant factor that helped Wilson win the 1912 Presidential election? 615 t. split between the republican party? 21. What major 1904 anti-trust case did Roosevelt get credit for? 611 u.

Northern Securities v United States; held that the stock transactions constituted an illegal combination in restraint of interstate commerce. 22. What was the Roosevelt Corollary and why was it issued? 625 v. Justified US intervention in the region, beginning with the Dominican Republic in 1905. w. To prevent armed intervention by Europeans 23. What was Roosevelt’s Gentlemen’s Agreement? 625 x. 1097, Japan agreed not to issue passports to male Japanese laborers looking to emigrate to the US, and Roosevelt promised to fight anti Japanese discrimination. 24.

William Howard Taft’s foreign policy was generally referred to as what? 625 y. Dollar diplomacy? 25. What was the legacy of Wilson’s attempt and Wilson’s effort to manage the Mexican Revolution and protect U. S. interests in Mexico? 626 and 627 z. Left a bitter legacy of suspicion and distrust in Mexico. Also suggested the limits of a foreign policy and tied to a moral vision rooted in the idea of American exceptionalism. 26. Why was the alliance system in Europe both positive and negative in its effects? 628-630 and lecture notes {. Positive: kept European powers at peace with each other since 1871 |.

Negative: threatened to entangle many nations in any war that did erupt. 27. At the beginning of World War I what did Wilson declare? 628 }. Neutrality 28. What was the greatest barrier to true American neutrality? 629 and lecture notes: ties us had to the allies ~. Economic ties between US and the allies 29. What German practice during World War I most outraged Americans? 629-630 and lecture notes . Submarine warfare; sinking of the Lusitania 30. Would it be accurate to say that after l915 Wilson followed a policy of preparing for war while working to stay at peace? 29 ?. Yes? 31. What was the Zimmermann Telegram (note)? 630 and notes on ww1 ?. Proposed that an alliance be made between Germany and Mexico if US entered the war. Suggested that Mexico take up arms against US and receive in return “lost territory in New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. ” 32. In asking for a declaration of war against Germany, what did Wilson argue entry into the war would do? 630 ?. He expressed the realist ambition of making America a world power in terms of a absolute moral imperative. 33. What was the Committee on Public Information established to do, and what id George Creel turn it into? 631 632 ?. Organize public opinion ?. Transformed it from its original function as coordinator of government news into a sophisticated and aggressive agency for promoting the war. 34. Why did many feminists support World War I? 638-639 ?. Meant a chance to switch from low paying jobs, such as domestic service, to higher paying industrial employment. 35. What was the Houston Riot of l917 and what were the consequences? 633 ?. Black infantry men, incensed over continual insults and harassment by local whites, seized weapons from an armory and killed seventeen civilians. ?.

The army executed thirty black soldiers and imprisoned 41 others for life, denying any of them a chance for appeal. 36. Which labor group was all but destroyed by a government crackdown during the war? 637-638 ?. Industrial Workers of the World (IWW); aka Wobblies 37. To make financing the war appear as patriotic as possible, what did the government call war bonds? 636 ?. Liberty Bonds 38. What was the main impact of the war and its aftermath on working women? 638 ?. Broader civilian economy ?. WIS represented the first attempt by the federal government to take a practical stand on improving working conditions for women. . At the end of war, women lost nearly all defense-related jobs. Replaced returning service men, worked in white-collar jobs such as clerks, telephone operators, etc. 39. Immigration restrictions were lifted for what immigrant group during World War I? 637 ?. Mexican laborers; some businesses insisted on cheap Mexican labor 40. In Wilson’s view what was most important element of the Treaty of Versailles? 635 ?. ??? 41. At the end of the war, millions of people worldwide died from what cause? 640 ?. Influenza 42.

Why did the Republican Party win the Presidential election of 1920? 648-649 ?. The notion of a “return to normalcy” proved very attractive to voters who were exhausted by the war, inflation, big government, and social dislocation. 43. Which immigrant group was most affected by the World War I the “Great Migration”? 644 ?. African americans 44. In its final form would it be accurate to say the treaty of Versailles closely followed Wilson’s Fourteen Points? 647 ?. ??? 45. Whose diplomacy was based on the principle of the “big stick”? 624 ?. Theodore Roosevelt 46.

What was Wilson’s response to Pancho Villa’s raids across the Mexican border killing dozens of Americans in March, l916? 627 ?. Dispatched general John J Pershing and an army of 15000 to capture him; villas army grew and his guerrilla tactics kept US away. Brought the to nation to war again 47. What did the Supreme Court uphold in the cases: 641 ?. Schenck v. United States: court unanimously agreed with Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes’s claim that congress could restrict speech if the words “are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger. i. Upheld the conviction of Charles Schenck for having mailed pamphlets urging potential army inductees to resist constriction. ?. Debs v. United States: court affirmed the guilt of Eugene V. Debs for his antiwar speech in Canton, even though he had not explicitly urged violation of the draft laws ?. Abrams v. United States? Court upheld Sedition act convictions of four Russian immigrants who had printed pamphlets denouncing American military intervention in the Russian Revolution 48. What final action did the U. S. Senate take on the Treaty of Versailles? 647 and 648 ?. ??? 49.

Which president was plagued by problems with Venustiano Carranza, Victoriano Huerta, and Pancho Villa? 627 ?. Woodrow Wilson 50. What was the Root-Takahira Agreement? 625 ?. Affirmed the “existing status quo” is Asia, mutual respect for territorial positions in the Pacific, and Open Door trade policy in China. ?. From a Japanese perspective, it recognized Japan’s colonial dominance in Korea and southern Manchuria 51. What was the Red Scare an ugly response to? 648 ?. Wholesale violations of constitutional rights, deportations of hundreds of innocent people, fuel for the fire of nativism and tolerance. 2. During the l920’s why did the American economy change from producer-durable goods to a consumer-durable goods economy? 656 ?. Modern mass production techniques were increasingly applied to newer consumer-durable goods, permitting firms to make larger profits while keeping prices affordable 53. Why did Henry Ford introduce the $5 dollar wage for an eight-hour day? 659 ?. Understood that workers were consumers as well as producers and the new wage scale helped boost the sale of Ford cars ?. Reduced the high turnover rate in his labor force and increased worker efficiency 54.

As President how would Warren G. Harding be described? 661 and notes ?. Handsome, genial, hard-spoken, looked the part of a president, but he was shallow, intellectually weak 55. Why did the coal industry decline in the l920’s? 663 and 664 ?. Oil and gas gained importance; combination of shrinking demand, new mining technology and a series of losing strikes 56. What was the most popular mass sport in the l920’s? 668 ?. major league baseball 57. A “flapper” was most likely to be found among what group during the l920’s? 670 ?. “Roaring twenties” 58.

What did Katherine Bement Davis’s 1929 study reveal about most middle-class women during the twenties? 671 ?. Revealed that most used contraceptives and described sexual relations in a positive terms 59. What was “Eugenics” during the l920’s? 673 ?. enjoyed considerable vogue; held that heredity held almost all of a person’s capacities and that genetic inferiority predisposed people to crime and poverty. 60. People who supported the Klan in the 1920 were also likely to be from what group? 675 ?. whites? 61. In the 1925 Scopes trial, what was the real issue at stake? 675 ?. ?? 62. The 1920s fundamentalist movement was strongest in what part of the country? 675 ?. South and midwest 63. What was the Sheppard-Towner Act? 678 ?. Established the first federally funded health care program, providing matching funds for states to set up prenatal and child health care centers. 64. What was the Tulsa Race Riot and why did it occur? Notes on film ?. Whites burned down the African American community in Tulsa, Oklahoma after a black man was accused of assaulting a white woman in an elevator. 65. What did advertising of the 1920s paid most attention to? 68 ?. Sports; professional athletes 66. What was the Teapot Dome Scandal? 661 ?. Interior secretary Albert Fall received hundreds of thousands of dollars in payoffs when he secretly released navy oil reserves in Teapot Dome, Wyoming and Elk Hills, California, to two private oil developers 67. The “new immigrants” from 1890 to 1920 came from what countries? 672 and 673 ?. southern and eastern Europe 68. Writers like Writers Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, James Weldon Johnson, and others belonged to what movement in the 1920s. 81 ?. Harlem Renaissance 69. How did Harding escape personal condemnation for the scandals in his administration? 661 ?. took the easy way out and died by a heart attack 70. What was the 1919 Volstead Act’s function? 672 ?. Established a federal Prohibition Bureau to enforce the eighteenth amendment 71. What 1920s novelist coined the term “the Jazz Age”? 682 ?. F. Scott Fitzgerald 72. Which group did the social status and treatment of Mexican Americans in the 1920s most resembled? 679 ?. African Americans

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