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Essay on Effusion In Basketball

Does the temperature outside affect how fast molecules move inside objects? Charles Law helps us understand how molecules move in different temperatures. It states that increasing the temperature of a constant pressure volume of gas causes individual gas molecules to move faster (Andrew Staroscik Staroscik 9/19/16), and the volume is proportional to the absolute temperature of a gas at (Todd Helmenstine 10/16/16). Therefore, as the temperature increases, so does the speed of the molecules, and when the temperature is doubled so is its volume.

As molecules start to move faster they will obviously hit he object, or the wall more often, creating pressure. Newton’s Third Law of motion says that both the molecule and the wall will experience a force (Andrew Staroscik Staroscik 9/19/16). As the temperature decreases, so does the speed of the molecules. Therefore, when basketballs are placed in high temperatures, the air pressure will increase due to the speed of the molecules, and the amount of times it hits the wall creating more pressure. When the temperatures decrease, the molecules will move slower, resulting in fewer amounts of time to hit the wall, creating low air pressure.

While all the molecules in the basketball are moving fast or slow, according to the temperature, the air pressure is not the only thing being altered in this process. As the gas molecules expand, their energy increases and they bounce around faster inside the ball (” Wonderopolis” 9/19/16). Therefore, if there is an exceeding amount of air pressure, subsequently the ball will have a bigger bounce. Likewise, when the ball has a smaller bounce, there will be little air pressure. This can affect anybody who has a ball at home and they want to keep it in adequate conditions.

However, sport teams would rely heavily on this issue, because they need a ball with the proper amount of air pressure in order to play their game. For example, football teams playing in extremely cold weather often have to compensate for the fact that footballs will bounce differently, especially when kicked (” Wonderopolis” 9/19/16). The same problem happens for basketball teams. When they have a stadium filled with numerous people, they need to keep in mind what the temperature is, and how it will affect the people and the basketballs.

Also, where they store the basketball prior to the tart of the game. Although Charles Law helps us understand how temperature affects air pressure, it does however, help us understand what is happening when the molecules are moving in their object, or in this case a basketball. In order to find the solution to this, we must first understand the The Kinetic Theory of Gases. There are several statements that go with this theory. The model, called the kinetic theory of gases, assumes that the molecules are very small relative to the distance between molecules (“NASA” 10/16/19).

The molecules are in constant, andom motion and frequently collide with each other and with the walls of any container (“NASA” 10/16/19). Mass, momentum, and energy are properties that molecules are known to have. In order to find the density of the gas, we must divide the sum of the molecule’s mass by the volume that which the gas occupies. When the gas molecules strike the walls of the object, they are exerting a force known as pressure. Finally, since the molecules are in constant random motion as stated in the theory, there is an energy that correlates with this.

Therefore, the higher the temperature the greater the motion. This section is similar to Charles Law. Since we have now figured out what is happening inside a basketball, we will go back in time to where we first pumped up the basketball with air. We will explore how these molecules are getting through the basketball. Effusion is when small gaseous particles have high kinetic energy that allows them to move through small holes. However, the mean free path must be larger the hole itself. The mean free path is the average distance traveled by a particle between collisions with other particles (“Boundless” 10/13/16).

If it does not meet these equirements, then the gas molecules will just keep moving back and forth through the opening. Effusion tells how gas molecules move through the small opening of the basketball, leading to an increase in its air pressure; this similar to the Kinetic Molecular Theory. Every basketball is different depending on which level it is played on. For example, on the men’s professional level, or the NBA, the basketball has a circumference varying between 75-76 cm. Whereas for the women’s, the basketball’s circumference is between 72-74 cm.

However, the exterior and interior of a basketball is the same egardless of what level it is played on, or what of type brand name the ball is. The exterior of a basketball is made of synthetic rubber, rubber, composition, or leather (“How products are made” 10/11/16). Every basketball is made out of one of these 4 coverings. The interior also contains something that every basketballs needs, a bladder, and carcass. The bladder is made of butyl rubber, and the carcass consists of threads of nylon or polyester (“How products are made” 10/11/16).

When the distributors are finished making the basketball as whole, they test, inspect, and put them in ackages. Overall, these two qualities are in every single basketball that are produced. Basketball can be dated back 500 years ago; when the Olmec people of ancient Mexico, Aztec, and the Mayans played it. Although it was the same game, the Aztec and Mayans used skulls of their enemies as a ball. Since then, basketball was forgotten. Until January 20, 1892, when Dr. James Naismith officially invented the game as we all know it today.

Naismith wrote simple rule for the game, and nailed up two peach baskets for hoops, most of original Naismith rules are still n place today (Faurschou 10/22/16). Even though the game is still played today, the rules however, were not the same as they were when Naismith first created them. Some of the rules have changed a bit, and new rules have been added since then, such as in the original game bouncing was prohibited (Faurschou 10/22/16). However, in order to play the game you would need a ball. People used to play with a soccer ball instead of an actual basketball. On one team you would have 9-18 players.

When people started to show an interest in the game, local teams were created. These were the first competitive teams in the history of basketball. These teams would usually score no more than 20 points a game. As the game grew in popularity, the entire east coast created basketballs leagues that ended up being sponsored by colleges. At first only a few Colleges participated including Yale, Minnesota, Dartmouth, Columbia, Chicago, Utah, and Navy (Faurschou 10/22/16). Basketball has come a long way since Nasmith; people can enjoy the sport the way it was meant to be, anywhere in the world.

In order to understand this experiment we will investigate key components of it. First, we will explore the history of a basketball. By knowing its history, we will have an exceptional grasp on, of how basketball has evolved over time. Afterwards we will learn about different types of basketballs and their exterior and interior materials. By being familiar with this we can predict what is propelling to happen in the experiment. Third, we will investigate Charles Law. This will aid us to understand how different temperatures can affect a basketball. Fourth, we will search how the bounce of the ball relates to its air pressure.

Next we will consider the Kinetic Theory of Gases. This theory can help us learn what the molecules themselves are doing inside the object (basketball). Finally, we will explore effusion. Although it branches off the Kinetic Theory of Gases, it explains how gas molecules are entering the basketball through a tiny hole. By knowing these components we can personally understand the ending results of this experiment. The history of basketball, different types of balls, Charles Law, how the bounce relates to air pressure, Kinetic Theory of Gases, and effusion have aided us a better understanding of this project.

Learning about the history and different types of balls explained how the basketball itself, and the game have changed throughout time. Understanding how the bounce relates to air pressure simply drive us to the conclusion that when a ball has an exceeding amount of air pressure it would also have bigger bounce. Charles Law, The Kinetic Theory of Gases, and effusion all have demonstrated what molecules are doing inside the basketball, and how they get into the basketball. By understanding these key components in the project, it leads us to a better understanding the ending results.

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