Chapter Review (pg. 34-49) A: The teaching and institutions of Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism are the three philosophies out there were Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism. All of them had a different style, but they all meant to end fighting in China. In Confucianism, every person has a part that they must obey. Legalism is the method that actually ended all the fighting, but at a big price. Books were burned, and all free thinking was stopped. Daoism was less focused on politics. The idea behind it is that humans have to be linked with Dao or with nature.
B: The development the Chinese state and political institutions are classical Chinese government that is based on the dynastic cycle. Which means that a family would start their rule with strength. Then when it grows weaker, then another dynasty would take its place. Every dynasty that was ruling had the order of heaven and when they lose it. Another dynasty would take its place. Then Confucianism grew to be a large inspiration on the political state of China, like it became a big centralized and bureaucratic government. People gained government offices by earning them when passing the civil service exams, which were based on Confucian classics.
C: The dynasties create a unified Chinese society and culture by stressing a strong central government. They inspired a controlled religious services to their people. They also made a main currency that they use. Then they made a language, which they call Mandarin. They have strong political things in villages and towns through male-controlled families that were faithful to the empire.
D: Chinese warfare changed under classical societies, because they are practicing unity. They did this by allowing a group to get together to promote peace of the world to others. Also the use of iron helped civilizations make stronger and better weapons. Cause the side with the best weapons usually were the ones to win. Gunpowder, horse riders, cannons, stronger armor were all of the elements you need to win. Every time there was a major technological development, the side that adopted it first gained power over all the others.
E: The class structure and gender relations in classical China are the class structures that are dictated by occupation. At the upper class is where the scholar -gentry class of highly educated landowners that held almost all of the government positions. Then there are the skilled merchants and farmers, then the unskilled workers and peasants, then merchants. Which they thought they did not work hard and benefited from other peoples work.
F: The class that came to dominate Chinese government was the scholar-gentry class of land owning honorable elites. They earn power by being educated and gaining government positions because the public service exams were very challenging and only the rich people had time to study. The poor never had time to study, so they would usually never pass because it was a hard exam.
G: The intellectual and technological advancements that imperial China made was the Great Wall. Which they made the great wall to separate them from Mongolia. They also made an accurate calendar, water powered mills, seismogram, first hygiene rules, and found the orbits of many planets. Those are the intellectual and technological advancements that imperial China made.
H: The influence of merchants and the importance of commerce to China are very important. Although they never became a main point of Chinese civilization due to the Confucian view that they were earning off of others work. China shipped goods such as silk and jewelry. The trade between rice producing regions and wheat producing regions in China was very significant. That is the main influence of merchants and the importance of commerce to China.
Vocabulary (pg. 34-49) A: Confucian Five Relationships- The Five Bonds is: ruler to rule, father to son, husband to wife, elder brother to younger brother, friend to friend. Specific duties were prescribed to each of the participants in these sets of relationships. B: Filial Piety- the important virtue and primary duty of respect, obedience, and care for one’s parents and elderly family members. C: Ancestor worship- the veneration of ancestors whose spirits are frequently held to possess the power to influence the affairs of the living.
D: Dynasty- a line of hereditary rulers of a country. E: Scholar-gentry- were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China’s last imperial dynasty. F: Legalism-excessive adherence to law or formula.
G: Daoism; Dao-is a philosophical, ethical or religious tradition of Chinese origin that emphasizes living in harmony with the Dao. H: Secret Societies- an organization whose members are sworn to secrecy about its activities. 1: Yin-Yang- two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine, and one positive, bright, and masculine whose interaction influences the destinies of creatures and things.