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Early african societies

The beginning of time has always played a major role in history. The beginning of time explains the reasons for each and every creature, plant, and unexplainable phenomena that have occurred on this earth. Chapter one of World History: A Topical Approach primarily explains to the reader the different arguments that people believe are true. There are many claims that scientist have found to be very true, but then there are others who believe in a phenomenon quite different. Some scientists date the beginning of existence as far as twenty billion years ago, but there are others who believe that the world is really not that old.

Human existence has taken its toll upon many great researchers who have searched to understand human ancestry. It is only right to include the Book of Genesis when one speaks of human existence, seeing that God created man and woman (Adam and Eve). The idea of human evolution only evokes the scientific mind of Charles Darwin and the theme of his work, biological evolution. Many scientists have challenged his theory, but some have learned to accept it. From the Homo habilis to the rise of the Homo sapiens, and even the Australopithecus, scientists have learned a great deal about human existence.

But yet, there is still a gap, a missing link, which bridges that gap between ape and man that so many researchers have yet to find. The trellis theory argues that Homo sapiens came from the means of Homo erectus that took place in China. This theory is derived from the similarities between their teeth. The opposing thought, the out-of-Africa theory, states the transition to modern Homo sapiens took place only once and in Africa. Even the book itself states that prior to Homo erectus, all hominids were found in Africa, the cradle of human evolution. Darwin even targeted Africa as the birthplace of human existence.

In terms of the missing link, the first set of finds came from England, whose nearest non-human relatives were from Africa. So everything that deals with the human existence relates back to Africa. This series of studies makes you stop and think. Maybe our race was here first, and as time went on different shades of colors were introduced. The many different shades of color moved to different regions of the world to start their own culture and develop a civilization. There are many different aspects of taking the development of the human existence. Some people believe it originated in Europe and others believe something different.

Who is to say who is right and wrong? No one can judge just by the scientific facts that are presented within this text. The search for this knowledge of human existence is only so close. People might even have to look to a higher source for this means of knowledge. In other words, the only being that would know the answer to all the questions is God. But until then, we must lean on the shoulders of our own people to seek the knowledge for which we are looking. The earliest civilizations have taught philosophers about many cultures. As people began to settle down, they started to form communities around river valleys.

The rise of early cities, such as those of the Nile valley, Indus valley, and Mesopotamian valley has developed innovative ways of urbanization. Through early forms of writing, art, architecture, and technology researchers have been able to find numerous amounts of information about these river valley communities. Some scholars indicate that the Nile and Indus valley derived from the Mesopotamian, others believe that the Nile and Indus valley were innovative in their own unique way of creating their civilizations. Chapters two and three of World History: A Topical Approach dwells on the creation of communities in these three river valleys.

The first communities were based on the agricultural needs of farmers and their families. Back then, technology was not as advanced as it is today, so farmers had to work a considerable enough amount of time for their food. The Mesopotamian civilization was the first civilization to utilize the benefits of the river. Although this great civilization was conquered, it flourished throughout the Fertile Crescent with the inventions, art, and writings that were bestowed upon them. The Nile and Indus valleys were soon formed upon the downfall of Mesopotamia.

The creation of these river valleys was primarily the same as the Mesopotamian. Even though it is not stated within the text, it is conceivable that the people of the Nile and Indus river valleys conquered Mesopotamia, and expanded on the culture that was displayed before it was destroyed. The migration of these two civilizations left them to uphold new beliefs and values in their goal in reaching supremacy. The Nile and Indus valleys were prolific in what they accomplished. As stated before, the two river valleys bestowed some of the same interest in forming civilizations, as did the Mesopotamian.

So, the river valleys of the Nile and Indus were just a sophisticated imitation of Mesopotamia. All three of the river valleys were very content with the objective of the community. To produce food for their people was the primary objective of each of the river valley communities. Trading amongst the river was their source of income with other small villages. The river valleys were all alike in some way, but at the end all were conquered by other dominant civilizations. In return, the dominant civilizations expanded upon the ideas and cultural values of the river valleys. This has been a cycle of evolution since the beginning of time.

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