SPRINT AND ACCELERATION ASSESSMENT Name: Age: 19 Weight: 62kg Height: 168cm
Trial 5m 10m 20m 1 1.28 sec 2.08 sec 3.68 sec 2 1.26 sec 2.05 sec 3.65 sec 3 1.34 sec 2.15 sec 3.73 sec Best 1.26 sec 2.05 sec 3.65 sec Classification Good Excellent Good
CALCULATIONS Average velocity (10 – 20 m) = (10 m)/(time at 20 m- time at 10 m) = (10 m )/(3.65 sec〖- 2.05 sec〗 ) = 6.25 m/s
Average velocity (0 – 5 m) = (5 m)/(time at 5 m) = (5 m )/(1.26 sec) = 3.97 m/s
Average acceleration (0 – 5 m) = (Velocity at 5 m)/(time at 5 m) = (3.97 m/s )/(1.26 sec) = 3.15 m/s2
The sprint and acceleration assessment measures the acceleration and maximum running speed for a distance of 20 m. According to the 20 m sprint normative data, the participant has classifications of good for 5 and 20 m and excellent for 10 m (Skinner & Coombes, 2014). This is because the participant’s best-achieved sprint time for 5, 10 and 20 m is 1.26 sec, 2.05 sec and 3.65 sec, respectively. This indicates to us that the most acceleration the participant had during the sprint was between 5m and 10m. This is because the ATP – PCr energy system is used between 5 to 10m and this system has the fastest form of energy production. However, the participant’s average velocity is 6.25 m/s which is classified as average and their average acceleration is 3.15 m/s2 which is classified as poor.
This shows us that the participant does not train for speed or acceleration and shows that their ATP – PCr energy system is not effective enough to boost their speed. The participant can improve these two fitness components by practising resisted sprints. This is because resisted sprints help activate the fast twitch muscle fibres in the hamstrings, quadriceps and gluteal muscles faster which are used for powerful bursts just like the beginning of a sprint. Trial 5m – Turn – 5m Left foot Right foot 1 2.81 sec 2.90 sec 2 2.77 sec 2.83 sec 3 2.71 sec 2.51 sec Best 2.71 sec 2.51 sec
5 – 0 – 5 AGILITY ASSESSMENT
The 505 agility test measures a person’s speed and agility by making them turn 180 degrees during a sprint. It is rather hard to compare the participant’s data to the normative data as the normative data includes different type of sports. The participant’s data cannot be compared to the normative data as they do not do any sports or even if the results were compared they would not be accurate. This is because when the participant’s results are compared to the normative data their results would vary due to all the different sports that are on the normative data.
However, if the participant’s agility is not up to standard we can always help improve it. This includes improving the participant’s balance, prescribe exercises that allow them to train with weights as well as doing exercises similar to the 505 agility test. REPEATED SPRINT ASSESSMENT (12 x 20m) Sprint Sprint time 1 3.70 sec 2 3.65 sec 3 3.66 sec 4 3.70 sec 5 3.59 sec 6 3.90 sec 7 3.90 sec 8 3.74 sec 9 3.61 sec 10 3.52 sec 11 3.64 sec 12 3.49 sec Total Sprint Time 44.10 sec
CALCULATIONS Best sprint time (s) = best sprint time x number of sprints performed = 3.49 x 12 = 41.88 sec Sprint performance decrement (%) = (1 – ((best total sprint time)/(total sprint time))) x 100
= (1 – ((41.88 sec)/(44.10 sec))) x 100
= 0.0503 sec = 5.03% Classification = Good The repeated sprint test measures the ability to recover between each sprint, there are 12 sprints, and to repeatedly produce the same level of power. The participant finished 12 sprints in 44.10 sec with a sprint performance decrement of 5.03%. The sprint performance decrement is used to show the level of fatigue of the participant. A 5.03% decrement shows that the participant is not completely exhausted and is classified as ‘good’ as it is below 6.9% but over 4.2% (Skinner & Coombes, 2014). Sprinting 20 m as fast as possible for 12 times leaves the participant with depleted creatine phosphate (CP) and accumulation of lactic acid (Wadley & Rossignol, 1998).
At the beginning of the sprint the participant would be using ATP that is already stored in the muscles to supply the energy and then PC comes in to produce more adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is the ATP – PCr system (Kelso, 2016). This system is immediate and functions without oxygen and usually, lasts for a few seconds which is why the participant runs faster at the beginning of the test. The participant’s 1st, 2nd and 3rd sprint demonstrates this as they achieved a sprint time of 3.70 sec, 3.65 sec and 3.66 sec, respectively. However, after 10 to 12 seconds PC drops and cannot resynthesize ATP fast enough and an accumulation of lactic acid occurs (Kelso, 2016).
As a result, the participant would shift to another energy system called the glycolytic energy system which also does not require oxygen to help resynthesize ATP in the muscles (Kelso, 2016). The glycolytic energy system breaks down blood glucose and stored glycogen through a process of glycolysis to produce ATP (Kelso, 2016). Roughly after 12 seconds of using this system, the participant would start to become fatigue (Kelso, 2016). Shown by the participant after their 5th sprint, which is more than 12 seconds, their sprint time decreases by roughly 0.3 seconds. This test only allows 20 seconds of recovery which is not enough time for PC to replenish to help resynthesize ATP.
As a result, the participant would start to become fatigued and their sprint time would decrease which is shown in the participant’s data collection sheet. The oxidative energy system is a system that uses oxygen and only contributes when the participant is at rest or during low-intensity exercise. Therefore, it starts working after the sprint test to slowly replenish ATP. A person that is good a single or repeated sprints does not necessarily mean they are good at the other. A single and repeated sprints both include speed and acceleration however repeated sprints also includes endurance.
If a person lacks endurance level but has good speed and acceleration skills then they would be better at single sprints and vice versa. AGILITY TEST FOR HOCKEY PLAYERS Agility is the ability to change directions quickly or to alter the position of the body in space without losing balance which is important for hockey players. An agility test that hockey players can use is the zig-zag test. In this test, hockey players have to run around cones which are set up in an irregular pattern. This is to mimic a situation that would occur in game so when it does occur hockey players will know how to respond. Equipment: 5 cones Stopwatch
Setup: Mark out a rectangle of 5 by 5m with four cones placed at each corner and one in the centre. When the assistant commands “GO”, hockey player runs and the timer starts. Hockey player runs through all the cones and the timer stops when they run back to where they started. The player must be over the start and finish cone.
Start and Finish
Modifications: The test can be modified by changing the distances of the cones or the pattern. The test can also be modified by allowing the hockey player to do the test without the hockey stick 3 times and with the stick 3 times. This allows us to see if the hockey player’s agility difference with or without the stick. If the hockey player’s agility is better without the stick then we know the hockey player needs to improve their agility with the stick and if their agility is roughly the same with or without the stick then we need to help them maintain it.